University of Michigan scientists and their colleagues at the National Institute on Aging have produced the largest and most detailed worldwide study of human genetic variation, a treasure trove offering new insights into early migrations out of Africa and across the globe.
Like astronomers who build ever-larger telescopes to peer deeper into space, population geneticists like Noah Rosenberg are using the latest genetic tools to probe DNA molecules in unprecedented detail, uncovering new clues to humanity's origins.
The latest study characterizes more than 500,000 DNA markers in the human genome and examines variations across 29 populations on five continents.
A schematic of worldwide human genetic vari
A healthy lifestyle during the early elderly years—including weight management, exercising regularly and not smoking—may be associated with a greater probability of living to age 90 in men, as well as good health and physical function, according to a report in the February 11 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. A second article in the same issue finds that although some individuals survive to 100 years or beyond by avoiding chronic diseases, other centenarians live with such conditions for many years without becoming disabled.
Studies of twins have found that about one-fourth of the variation in human life span can be attributed to genetics, according to background information in the article. That leaves about 75 percent that could be attributed to modifiable risk factors.
German physician Otto Werner (1879-1936) described the clinical picture of this syndrome in 1904, in four sisters, defining the skin thin, tight, scleroderma-like, that mimics premature aging, with bilateral cataracts associated.
Also known by the term "Progeria" - 'prematurely old' Greek derivation, due to the fact that usually presents wrinkling and aging of face. Progeria occurs in two forms: Progeria of childhood, described by Jonathan Hutchinson (1886) and Hastings Gilford (1897), diagnosed in the first or second year of life and Progeria adultorum commonly indicated as Werner Syndrome.
Jonathan Hutchinson (1828-1913) described “A case of congenital absence of hair with atrophic condition of the skin and its appendages”. Lancet, London, 1: 923, 1886.
At the same time wrote “Congenital absence of hair and mammary glands with atrophic condition of the skin and its appendages in a boy whose mother had been almost wholly bald from alopecia areata from the age of six”. Transactions of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, 69: 473-477, 1886.
Subsequently Hastings Gilford (1861-1941) wrote “On a condition of mixed premature and immature development”. Medico-Chirurgical Transactions, London, 80: 17-45, 1897 and coined the term Progeria from greek “Prematurely old”. In the year 1904 published “Progeria: a form of senilism”. Practitioner, London, 73: 188-217.
Researchers at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) have reported a 10-fold life extension in the complex animal C. elegans, tiny worms that live in the soil.
Reported in the February 2008 issue of the journal Aging Cell, the discovery was made by a team of researchers headed by Robert Shmookler Reis, professor in the UAMS Departments of Geriatrics, Biochemistry/Molecular Biology and Pharmacology/Toxicology and research scientist at the Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System.
Older women are more prone to depression and are more likely to remain depressed than older men, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers in the February Archives of General Psychiatry.
The Yale team also found that women were less likely to die while depressed than older men, indicating that women live longer with depression than men. This factor, along with the higher likelihood of women becoming depressed and remaining depressed, collectively contribute to the higher burden of depression among older women.
A Columbia University Medical Center research team has uncovered how stimulation of a particular brain region can help stave off the deficits in working memory associated with extended sleep deprivation.
Working memory is a specific form of short-term memory that relates to the ability to store task-specific information for a limited timeframe, e.g., where your car is parked in a huge mall lot or remembering a phone number for few seconds before writing it down. It has long been established that cognitive performance, such as working memory, declines with sleep deprivation.
Researchers from the University of Granada have for the first time analyzed the antioxidant properties of olive oil, a product rich in polyphenols. The Environmental, Biochemical and Nutritional Analytical-Control Research Group had already carried out the polyphenolic characterization of food products, such as honey and beer.
In the 1960s, Ancer Keys, a US expert on nutrition, studied the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet for the first time. Since then many studies on the benefits of olive oil have been conducted.
Loneliness is commonly regarded as a social phenomenon in which individual personality differences contribute to its severity. Some people enjoy solitude, for example, because they never feel lonely, while people with high degrees of loneliness have shorter life expectancies than people who never feel lonely.
There may be more to it than that. Recent research shows that the gene expression in the immune cells of people with chronically high levels of loneliness is different than people who do not feel lonely. Even more telling, some genes were underexpressed in the same subjects, including those in antibody production.
A 53-page study designed to provide a comparison between the KC-767 Advanced Tanker (AT), based on the 767, and its major competitor in the U.S. Air Force's KC-135 Tanker Replacement Program states that a commercial 767 airplane is substantially more fuel efficient than the larger Airbus 330 - the 767 fleet burned 24 percent less fuel than the A-330s and would save approximately $14.6 billion in fuel costs.
That number is significant since the Air Force spent approximately $6.6 billion on aviation fuel costs in 2006.
The study used published data to calculate the fuel consumption of flying a fleet of 179 767-200ER and Airbus 330-200 airplanes over a 40-year service life.