Chemistry

Carbon capture could play a central role in keeping greenhouse gas emissions out of the atmosphere so many materials are being tested for the purpose of capturing CO2
New results show that ordinary clay can work just as effectively as more advanced materials. Clay offers many benefits compared to other materials, particularly because other potential materials can be expensive, difficult to produce, toxic and not particularly environmentally friendly. A possible practical future use of this discovery could be to include clays in CO2 filters for industrial-scale CO2 emissions reduction.

Thermochromic nano-coatings can help reduce energy usage and generate savings by absorbing heat or permitting its reflection, depending on temperature.
 
The reasn is because minute dimensions can still have major effects - nanoparticles have an especially large surface-area-to-volume ratio, making them them extremely efficient and reactive. Researchers of the Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT in Pfinztal near Karlsruhe are utilizing this characteristic to create novel coatings and incorporating active nano-materials into polymer systems. These coatings can be applied easily like paint or varnish.

Rubber is natural and the main ingredient for many everyday products, from boots to condoms to surgical gloves. Roughly 70 percent of the global supply of rubber is used in tires. 

All plants store solar energy in the form of carbohydrates with the help of a metallic compound. Chemically storing sunlight would also be ideal for society's energy needs but developing this requires a better understanding of exactly what happens when photons strike molecules. The primary processes run on timescales of only a few hundred femtoseconds (one femtosecond = 10-15s).

An international collaboration has been able to map the evolution of the chemical bonds in these kinds of ultrafast processes on the level of orbitals.  Using quantum chemical calculations, they were successful in interpreting the data and obtaining a detailed picture of the intermediates and reaction kinetics. 


A new nanotechnology lubricant will be suitable for extreme conditions.

Shuttles and equipment used in space consist of numerous elements that have several friction-prone components so the surfaces must be greased to ensure smooth operation. Conventional oils and greases cannot be used in space due to extreme temperature, pressure and radiation conditions so solid substances such as molybdenum disulfide and graphite are preferred for space usage.


PhD student Triinu Taaber working in the laboratory of physics of nanostructures. Credit: Andres Tennus
A new class of dopamine receptor antagonists (DARs) could provide a safer means of controlling mosquitoes that transmit key infectious diseases such as dengue, yellow fever and elephantiasis. The new chemicals work by manipulating the neurotransmitter dopamine to lock into protein receptors that span the mosquito cell membrane. Disrupting the mechanics of dopamine, which plays important roles in cell signaling, development and behavior, eventually leads to the insect's death.
Urine is commonly believed to be sterile until it reaches the urethra but that has led to numerous misconceptions about what can and should or should not be done with it. Drinking urine is a bad idea, for example, because even though it is sterile it contains urea and other substances that can still be toxic.

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that is used in a variety of consumer products, such as water bottles, dental composites and resins used to line metal food and beverage containers. Often, aquatic environments such as rivers and streams become reservoirs for contaminants, which can include products containing BPA.

A new experiment was able to expose fish to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and cause them to pass adverse reproductive effects onto their offspring as many as three generations later, leading the authors to suggest that BPA could have adverse reproductive effects for fish and also humans and their offspring who are exposed to BPA as well.



Soft drinks are loaded with sugar because they need to be sweet. But why is sweetness the fundamental consideration?

Some candies are sour and people love them. When did we become so polarized about sweet and salty? Some of it is just culture and so it would take time to adjust. A friend of mine moved to the U.S. from Korea and an early comment was, 'There is so much cheese' but Americans don't realize that we have dairy everywhere. 'Soft' drinks as we know them were created so merchants could sell something on Sundays, when 'hard' drinks were not allowed. Because the market was also kids they were made sweet.
Bioplastics are used in medical applications such as wound healing dressings, sutures, catheter tubes and drug delivery and bioplastics made from protein sources such as albumin and whey have shown significant antibacterial properties.

They could even be used for food packaging, according to a recent study by the University of Georgia College of Family and Consumer Sciences.