Telepathy And The Quantum
    By Johannes Koelman | November 5th 2009 07:47 PM | 12 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    About Johannes

    I am a Dutchman, currently living in India. Following a PhD in theoretical physics (spin-polarized quantum systems*) I entered a Global Fortune


    View Johannes's Profile
    Will the $ 1,000,000 Randi Challenge Prize soon be awarded? The prize, administered by the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF), is offered to anyone who can prove in scientifically controlled tests some form of paranormal power. So far, Randi's prize has not been claimed, but rumour has it that under supervision of the JREF an elaborate telepathy test is being conducted with shocking results.

    A JREF staff member, who wishes to remain anonymous, commented on the ongoing tests with the words “I have never witnessed anything like this, this is deeply disturbing”. I subsequently spoke with several investigators involved in the tests, and there is no doubt that the claimants, Dr. Reid M. Bell and his wife Dr. Cora Bell-Tsirelson have accomplished something highly unlikely. Are we witnessing a statistical glitch, an unlikely strike of luck, or are Mr. And Mrs. Bell cheating? Or is perhaps something weird and unexplainable really happening?

    The JREF remains tight-lipped. They have not announced any press releases, and also they have carefully refrained from mentioning the ongoing tests at their internet forum. This so-far has prevented the news reaching a wider public. Within a month, however, when the tests will be finalized, hell may break loose. If the two quantum physics postdocs from the UK indeed manage to win the one million dollar prize, they will find themselves in the media spotlights to an extend that may well be unprecedented.

    Currently, however, Cora and Reid continue to live a normal uneventful life in their apartment in London. Two days ago, I managed to get in contact with this charming couple. During the one-and-a-half hour interview, I became aware that neither Reid nor Cora were in any way surprised by the results obtained at the JREF tests. Yet, the two revealed some truly spectacular feats.

    Reid explains the tests being conducted: “We have agreed with the JREF a very specific test protocol. This protocol stipulates us being separated for the duration of the experiment, such that no communication is possible. During this period of separation, we play a repetitive coordination game. To be successful, we have to do so with a 100% success rate. The JREF has stated that accomplishing this without any communication, would require true magic and should be considered proof of telepathic powers. We have succeeded in a preliminary test, and when we repeat the same 100% success rate in a subsequent formal test, we will earn the million dollar prize.”

    Cora adds: “The coordination game is fairly simple. In each round of the game we both have to color cells of a 3x3 table with red and green colors. I have to color three cells in a column such that they contain an odd number of red cells. Meanwhile, Reid has to color a row of the same table such that an even number of red cells results for that row. Which of the three columns I have to color is determined by a die handled by an official appointed by the JREF and standing right next to me. Similarly, a die controlled by another JREF-appointed official next to Reid will determine which of the three rows he needs to be color.”

    Cora needs to create columns containing an odd number of red cells (left), whilst Reid is tasked to color rows with an even number of red cells (right). Cora and Reid will disagree on the coloring of at least one cell (in this example the lower right cell).

    With Cora and Reid being separated, Cora can not inform Reid which column she is asked to color, and neither can Reid tell Cora which row he is been given. Yet, each time the game is repeated, both have to specify the same color for the cell at the intersection of the column and row specified. It should be clear that this task can impossibly be achieved repetitively without some form of communication between Cora and Reid.

    Prior to the tests, Cora and Reid can make arbitrarily complicated and elaborate agreements on how to color the 3x3 table. Whatever their agreements, it will not help them succeed: given a large enough number of rounds, they are bound occasionally to disagree on the coloring of a cell. The reason being that a 3x3 table with even number of red cells for each row and an odd number of red cells for each column can not be constructed. If such a table would exist, the total number of red cells would have to be even based on the row sums, and odd when based on the column sums. A logical impossibility. It follows that a coloring satisfying all requirements is not possible. So Cora and Reid have to use two distinct coloring schemes: one for Cora that ensures odd numbers of red cells in each of the columns, and one for Reid that ensures even numbers of red cells for each of the row. The best possible dual-coloring scheme accomplishes for eight out of the nine cells that Cora and Reid agree on the color. Such an optimal scheme would yield an expected success rate of 8/9 or roughly 89%, for each round of play.

    Yet, Cora and Reid seem capable of realizing the impossible: a 100% success rate. In a preliminary test conducted end of October in London, the couple managed to play 40 rounds of the game without a single flaw. To accomplish 40 flawless rounds in the absence of any communication (i.e. by chance alone) is estimated to be less than 1%. According to the protocol agreed with the JREF, and following the successful conclusion of the preliminary test, Cora and Reid will be subjected to an even more stringent test end of this month. The JREF refers to this test as the formal test. This test will be decisive on the award of the one million dollar prize. During the formal test, Reid will be placed in a copper-cladded room at the JREF headquarters in California, whilst Cora will be placed in a bank vault in London. Placing the couple far apart and surrounded by walls of metal is part of the elaborate precautions to prevent Cora and Reid from establishing any communication via physical means. To ensure a successful result gives proof beyond reasonable doubt that the couple has telepathic powers, 100 rounds of the game need to be played.

    JREF offices, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA

    “It is all pointless, we will pass the test with flying colors” Reid laughs. “It doesn't matter where we are or how far apart, or how many rounds we need to play.” Cora smiles and remarks “it is no coincidence that we are both physicists”. Reid grins but remains silent. “Why is that?” I ask. Reid hesitates, and looks at Cora. A short silence follows. “It all started as a kind of joke, and we've contacted the JREF to explain them how it works” Cora confesses.

    It's plain physics, straightforward quantum physics” Reid adds. He continuous: “It is this infamous 'rule three' out of the sixteen official rules governing the JREF challenge that prevented us to warn the JREF”. “We did send them an e-mail, and even included a link to the Wikipedia page that explains the phenomenon.” “However, based on their 'rule three' the JREF had to ignore our explanations, and deleted these e-mails”, Cora adds. Another silence follows. Reid breaks this silence: “We thought long about it, but decided that if they don't want to get warned, it is not wrong and nor is it immoral to go for the one million dollar prize. We don't cheat, and no tricks are involved. Neither do we need telepathy or any other paranormal phenomena: quantum physics is weird enough. What we do is no more than a demonstration of a well-known phenomenon in quantum physics. But if the JREF considers our demonstration of quantum pseudo-telepathy a paranormal act, so be it. It won't win us the Nobel Prize for Physics, but it seems we can't fail the Nobel Prize for the Paranormal administered by the JREF!”

    Cora: “We have only one thing remaining to sort out”. Cora looks at Reid, and continuous: “what to do with a million dollars?” Both start laughing.

    I have been wondering for some time how best to explain the profound weirdness of quantum mechanics in layman's terms. I landed on the scenario described above. And yes, that means Cora and Reid and their dealings with the JREF are purely the product of my imagination. However, the Quantum pseudo-telepathy part of the story is not made up. The laws of physics allow the above to happen as described. Quantum pseudo telepathy is real. A physical reality as real as the existence of stable atoms, and like the stability of atoms, fully depending on the laws of quantum mechanics.

    For quantum pseudo-telepathy to occur, for each round of the game, Cora and Reid both need to bring with them part of a physical system in an entangled quantum state. They have to execute measurements on this entangled state, and decide how to color their cells based on the outcome of this measurement. The non-local quantum connections (also referred to as quantum entanglement) between the components of an entangled physical system creates correlated measurement outcomes that are at the heart of the phenomenon of Quantum pseudo-telepathy.

    It should be stressed here that quantum pseudo-telepathy does not allow for any 'hidden' transfer of information, but rather eliminates the need to exchange information between the players. A subtle but important distinction.

    Why would anyone be bothered about telepathy, when living in a quantum world with entanglement being freely available?



    To be clear, the JREF had nothing to do with this article, and it is a work of fiction as is stated in the postscript. It does not accurately describe how testing would be done, and we are not currently testing anything that resembles this scenario.

    I think this is a terrific outline.   JREF is being slightly paranoid but that's okay too.
    Pooh. I thought Randi would have to cough up, after all. (thinks a moment) So, what kind of doodad would one need to tote around "part of a physical system in an entangled quantum state"?

    Johannes Koelman
    So, what kind of doodad would one need to tote around "part of a physical system in an entangled quantum state"?
    Good question. "Tote around" is not the right word here. With current state of technology, the particles that make up the composite physical system need to be small. Atomic-size particles will do. Recent experimental progress suggests that suitable nano-sized systems can also be utilized. Reason for the requirement towards miniaturization is that the composite system needs to be cooled down to ground state. This translates into a temperature requirement that is inversely proportional to the mass of the individual particles (see: here). So more massive particles need to be cooled down further. Entanglement of really massive objects (such as cats) is currently not practically feasible.

    For atomic-sized objects, quantum entanglement is relatively easy to achieve. The real practical challenge towards achieving Quantum Pseudo Telepathy under the conditions as described in this blog entry, is to keep the entangled particles unperturbed and to prevent dephasing of the coherence achieved. The technology needed to prevent decoherence is the type of technology that attracted the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics.
    Hmmm. Then my Thermos™ is out.

    "It should be clear that this task can impossibly be achieved repetitively without some form of communication between Cora and Reid."

    Maybe Cora and Reid share a simple algorithm to pick each set of colors... such an algorithm only has to produce 9 bits :)

    Johannes Koelman
    "Maybe Cora and Reid share a simple algorithm to pick each set of colors... such an algorithm only has to produce 9 bits :)"

    That would at best yield a 8/9 success rate. Remember that both players have to fill out a different number of red cells: Cora has to provide an odd number, and Reid an even number. No prior agreement or algorithm (not utilizing quantum superposition) can realize this.
    hello sir,
    your blog was as usual very informative and startling. for sir i simply fail to understand how the particles are "informed" of each other when no waves of info are transmitted between them??? also sir, suppose i take 2 particles A and B, and if i measure A, particle B's wave function gets disturbed too, or does it not. i hope to hear from you the answer soon.
    thank you,

    Entanglement Age
    Contemporarily emerging culture from Quantum Entanglement.
    View on facebook groups : Entanglement.
    Paolo Manzelli ; LRE@UNIFI.IT : ;

    Yin-Yang entangled colours overposition

    When two quantum systems (electrons, photons of light , phonons of the sound, etc ...) interpenetrate each other (Entangled Systems) is determined a new state that presents new synergies changing the quality of the physical systems involved. “Entangled Systems” in fact do not behave as isolated systems, but as complex sets showing simultaneity of information .

    Therefore, in the presence of entanglement, a change made on one part of a coupled systemm instantly determines a change in the state of the other side of the other system. This simultaneity of information appears inconsistent with the conceptions of "mechanics" of physics, all based on localized single systems and also appears to undermine the principle of the constancy of the speed of light that does not allow the simultaneity of events, except as the case of a random situation.

    Therefore, to undestand "Entangled Systems", starting from that show the experiment of Alain Aspect (1982) , become a need to accept the evidence of an at distance "synchronized behavior" , that have been excluded for more than a century from the traditional science only for academic interest, because such synchronism gave rise to an embarrassing paradoxical situation that led scientific accademy to not being able to avoid the obvious conclusion that "quantum mechanics" was an incomplete theory of particle physics. (1)

    Syncronicity between up/down entangled hand's motion

    In fact, under the usual setting of Quantum Mechanics's the admissione of the simultaneous correlation of information, would correspond to exceed the Heisenberg Uncertainty postulate for all cases that can be obtained “Entangled Systems”.
    Entanglement is a the word used for the first time by Erwin Schroedinger (1926), and it is synonymous with the words "plot, intrigue, penetration, sharing, coupling", and it brings with a key to understanding the science, to forecast a more complete development of contemporary scientific and technological knowledge, in order to create a different perspective of major theoretical and applicative investigations on nano-technologies, but also the “quantum entanglement” allow the opening of new solutions in the elaboration of quantum information and in many other innovative aspects of contemporarily science.
    Unfortunately, the academic science, as we recognize the history of ideas, often it is unable to overcome their conceptual limits. See e.g. a dialog on "What happens between darkness and light" (2)

    From the above dialog follows that the visible light emitted as photons from the sun, reaching its maximum speed when photons travelling in the space enrich a low density of interactions. In this condition photons become very close to the speed of light and they lose their "kinetic mass" (m = E/c2), therefore photons can be "entangled" forming a simultaneous field of information energy ( “photonic field” ) that behaves like a pure stationary waves oscillating in a large extension of the space.
    When such a “photonic field” interacts with the Earth's atmosphere, stationary extended waves of simultaneously information, chrash , and the photonic field is decoded back into single photons travelling in the form of small particles.
    This dynamic of trasformation between single photons and the photonic field provides a plausible explanation as to why we effectively see almost at the same time the rising and setting sun on the horizon.

    Such an short interpretation involves a more complex theory on the space/time quantization based on four-vector transformation, tis theory that makes a plausible evolution of quantum relativity , which will give impetus to a new paradigm of science for the development of future society of shared knowledge.


    The formation of a group discussion on the Entanglement on Facebook and its prospects for change by maans a systems of Entangled Minds now is open to all who wish to deepen the development of new ideas in science and art to reinvent the paradigm of contemporarily knowledge society.

    (1)- - Science of Quality:
    (2)-: Sun light :

    Randi..?! I very good know - he have a team of telepats, who works like mistakes makers (as the katcher's - researchers of the ways). Randi have a philosophy, that he works for the God, because people have no abilitie to responsible as for unexpected powers. SHIT ALL THAT AS FOR THEM... Also - The greatest blab about telepathy is from space of the good manners owners, who usualy has been in unsuccess and have no doubts as for anothers in the same...Telepathy is easy proven by methodic of Yahoogroup "Atelepathy" (Randi know this way also). There exist only one trouble - those people thinking they are any from usual by this methodic and simply they don't wants be forwarders as the showcase makers.

    Photonic way (as the infrared indicators using) was publicied by autor of Yahoogroup Atelepathy 4 years before. In using of NSA it is long time before.