Gamblers interpret near-misses as frustrating losses rather than near-wins, and that frustration stimulates the reward systems in the brain to promote continued gambling, which may contribute to addictive gambling behavior.
Analyses to date have shown that near-misses support persistent gambling and activate brain areas that reinforce certain behaviors. If near-misses are seen as near-wins, then they should be pleasurable. If, however, near-misses are highly frustrating losses, then they should be unpleasant. Dixon and team set out to shed light on this debate.
Researchers measured the time between the result of a spin and the initiation of the next spin following losses, near-misses and wins of various sizes among 122 participants as they played a slot machine simulator. Of the 122 gamblers, 22 were non-problem gamblers, 37 were at risk players and 23 were problem gamblers. The researchers also assessed the players' frustration levels by measuring the rate at which electricity travels through the skin. Skin responses reflect psychophysical changes as a result of frustration.
Dr. Mike Dixon from the University of Waterloo comments, "Our findings support the hypothesis that these types of near-misses are a particularly frustrating form of loss, and contradict the supposition that they are a mis-categorized win. Specifically, following these types of near-misses, participants may be driven to spin again as quickly as possible to remove themselves from a particularly frustrating state."
The analyses showed that progressively larger wins led to longer pauses between spins and increased arousal levels. Near-misses with jackpot symbols landing on the first two reels led to significantly larger skin responses than regular losses and other types of near-misses. In addition, the gamblers were compelled to repeat the spin as quickly as possible after this type of near miss.
“By activating what we call the appetitive component of the mesolimbic rewards system, these near-misses may help a player develop a hopeful, subjective impression that the next win is imminent,” said Dixon. “This might ultimately contribute to the sensitization of the appetitive system, which plays a key role in addictive behavior.”
Citation: Dixon MJ et al (2012). The frustrating effects of just missing the jackpot: slot machines near-misses trigger large skin conductance responses, but no post-reinforcement pauses. Journal of Gambling Studies DOI 10.1007/s10899-012-9333-x.
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- On Sexuality, You Weren't Born That Way, Says Paper
- Bubble-wrapped Sponge Creates Steam Using Sunlight
- Anomaly!: Book News And A Clip
- Reframing Body Weight As Baby Weight May Help Women Handle Pregnancy
- Petition: Let's End Dramatized Reporting Of "Doomsday" Stories - The Vulnerable Get Suicidal
- Post-Doctoral Positions In Experimental Physics For Foreigners
- Stem Cell Therapy Heals Injured Mouse Brain
- "i've often wondered https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavioral_sink ..."
- "Dylan, yes back online now. The Sun, and Moon are visible in all those places, of course, so if..."
- "Tina, I think it's best to try to understand the constellation argument because then you can just..."
- "People worry about a system entering ours and spelling doomsday for us all, however I believe if..."
- " I appreciate your hard work and look forward to any future publications with great interest, thank..."
- If Facebook Is Guessing Your Politics, You’re Probably Safe From Being Pigeon-Holed
- Pregnancy-Related Deaths Rising, But Why?
- Fauci: Don’t Make Policy Based on Animal Studies
- Exercise Could Save Your Liver
- Precision Medicine Stands On Imprecise Infrastructure
- Standing with Giants: A Collection of Public Health Essays in Memoriam to Dr. Elizabeth M. Whelan
- New small molecule compounds could treat Ebola virus infection
- Heroic firefighter who underwent most extensive face transplant is thriving
- Progress in vaccination against vespid venom
- Molecular signature shows plants are adapting to increasing atmospheric CO2
- Modelling water uptake in wood opens up new design framework