If you own an electric car, you spend a lot of time thinking about where you will recharge it - and how long it will take. In Silicon Valley, where electric cars are the newest fad, charge rage is leading to lost productivity due to hostile emails about someone being hooked up to a parking lot charger for too long. Being stuck on 880 is bad enough without being stranded too.
Chemists say they have synthesized a new material that could show the way forward to lithium-sulfur batteries and that could mean actually driving somewhere meaningful.
Lithium-sulfur batteries have a very high storage capacity, should be cheaper to make and are less toxic for the environment than lithium-ion power packs so what's holding them back? The rate and the number of possible charge-discharge cycles.
Lots of pores for sulfur
Chemists Professor Thomas Bein (LMU), Coordinator of the Energy Conversion Division of the Nanosystems Initiative Munich, Professor Linda Nazar (University of Waterloo, Waterloo Institute of Nanotechology) and colleagues have now succeeded in producing a novel type of nanofiber, whose highly ordered and porous structure gives it an extraordinarily high surface-to-volume ratio. Thus, a sample of the new material the size of a sugar cube presents a surface area equivalent to that of more than seven tennis courts.
“The high surface-to-volume ratio, and high pore volume is important because it allows sulfur to bind to the electrode in a finely divided manner, with relatively high loading. Together with its easy accessibility, this enhances the efficiency of the electrochemical processes that occur in the course of charge-discharge cycles. And the rates of the key reactions at the sulfur electrode-electrolyte interface, which involve both electrons and ions, are highly dependent on the total surface area available,” as Benjamin Mandlmeier, a postdoc in Bein’s Institute and a first co-author on the new study, explains.
The secret recipe
A novel recipe and a cleverly designed mode of synthesis are the key factors that determine the properties of the new materials. To synthesize the carbon fibers, the chemists first prepare a porous, tubular silica template, starting from commercially available, but non-porous fibers. This template is then filled with a special mixture of carbon, silicon dioxide and surfactants, which is then heated at 900°C. Finally the template and the SiO2 are removed by an etching process. During the procedure, the carbon nanotubes – and thus the pore size – shrink to a lesser extent than they would in the absence of the confining template, and the fibers themselves are correspondingly more stable.
“Nanostructured materials have great potential for the efficient conversion and storage of electrical energy,” says Thomas Bein. “We in the NIM Cluster will continue to collaborate closely with our colleagues in the Bavarian SolTech Network in order to explore and exploit the properties of such structures and their practical applications.”
Citation: Bimodal Mesoporous Carbon Nanofibers with High Porosity: Freestanding and Embedded in Membranes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries, Guang He, Benjamin Mandlmeier, Jörg Schuster, Linda F. Nazar, and Thomas Bein, Chem. Mater., DOI: 10.1021/cm403740r
Lithium-Sulfur Batteries May Make Electric Cars Viable