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    What Causes Tornadoes?
    By News Staff | June 6th 2010 07:26 PM | 5 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    A tornado is a rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground.  Tornadoes are capable of 250 MPH wind speeds, cutting a swath of destruction in excess of one mile width and dozens of miles in length.

    If you see a dark, greenish sky or a wall cloud and hail, you might be getting a tornado.  If you have something that sounds like a freight train, you definitely are.

    Tornadoes form in violent thunderstorms when there is sufficient instability,  meaning warmer and more humid than usual conditions in the lower atmosphere, and possibly cooler than usual conditions in the upper atmosphere, and wind shear present in the lower atmosphere.  Wind shear in this case refers to the wind direction changing and the wind speed increasing with height, e.g., a southerly wind of 15 mph at the surface, changing to a southwesterly or westerly wind of 50 mph at 5,000 feet altitude. 

    The wind shear and instability to create a tornado usually exists only ahead of a cold front and low pressure system, usually eastward-moving cold fronts. The intense spinning evident in a tornado is the result of the updrafts and downdrafts in the thunderstorm - caused by the unstable air - interacting with the wind shear, causing a tilting of the wind shear to form and upright tornado vortex.   Flowing air around the cyclone, already slowly spinning in a counter-clockwise direction (in the Northern Hemisphere), converges inward toward the thunderstorm, causing it to spin faster. This is the same process that causes an ice skater to spin faster when she pulls her arms in toward her body.

    Other factors increase the chances for tornado formation, like dry air in the middle atmosphere rapidly cooled by rain in the thunderstorm, strengthening the downdrafts that are needed for tornado formation.


    Picture: Greg Stumpf.  Courtesy NOAA


    In the picture above, the tornado has formed on the boundary between dark clouds (the storm updraft region) and bright clouds (the downdraft region), showing the importance of updrafts and downdrafts to tornado formation.   Isolated storms or more likely to form tornadoes than squall lines, since an isolated storm can form a more symmetric flow pattern around it.

    Fun facts:

    A tornado in Broken Bow, Oklahoma, carried a motel sign  to Arkansas - 30 miles away.  So Dorothy's house in "The Wizard of Oz" was not all that crazy.

    A waterspout is a weak tornado that forms over warm water.

    The United States has more tornadoes than anyplace else in the world - on average 800 each year.

    95% of all tornadoes spin counter-clockwise (cyclonically).

    It's a myth that windows should be opened during a tornado to equalize pressure inside the house.    In actuality, that just allows damaging winds to enter the house.  Just go to a safe place.

    Comments

    i hate tornadoes they scare me

    This is a very poorly written and researched article.

    "If you see a dark, greenish sky or a wall cloud and hail, you might be getting a tornado. If you have something that sounds like a freight train, you definitely are." This is complete nonsense. Only 10-20% of mesoscycles have anything to do with tornadoes, so a rotating wall cloud is more likely to be nothing that to be genuinely tornadic. The freight train souns is made by any strong wind of 60 kts or more.

    "The wind shear and instability to create a tornado usually exists only ahead of a cold front and low pressure system, usually eastward-moving cold fronts." This is not true, more tornadoes form on the warm sector just south of a war front, while bow-echo type squall lines form along cold fronts-these are not generally associated with tornadoes.

    "The intense spinning evident in a tornado is the result of the updrafts and downdrafts in the thunderstorm - caused by the unstable air - interacting with the wind shear, causing a tilting of the wind shear to form and upright tornado vortex. Flowing air around the cyclone, already slowly spinning in a counter-clockwise direction (in the Northern Hemisphere), converges inward toward the thunderstorm, causing it to spin faster." This is the so-called cascade model, that went out of style about fifteen years ago. We now realize (except for many TV meteorologists) that tornadoes seem to form when some low level circulation gets lifted up by some vertical forcing (updraft, surface convergence, etc.) in the correct ratio (called the swirl ratio).

    "In the picture above, the tornado has formed on the boundary between dark clouds (the storm updraft region) and bright clouds (the downdraft region), showing the importance of updrafts and downdrafts to tornado formation." The dark clouds in the photo lead to the rain shad=ft which is downdraft dominated and has nothing to do with the updrafts, the lighter areas are due to a rear-flank downdraft that causes evaporation behind the sotrm. The is abbreviated RFD, the RFD seems to carry rotation to the surface that assists in spinning up a tornado.

    "Isolated storms or more likely to form tornadoes than squall lines, since an isolated storm can form a more symmetric flow pattern around it." This, too, is wrong. A squall line does not usually produce tornadoes (other than in its rotating bow head) because there is no good inflow region to fuel an updraft capable of producing a tornado. Symmetry has nothing to do with it.

    Hank
    I think you are using 'wrong' to mean you disagree.  If you are saying the science of tornadoes is understood and agreed on, then 50% of NOAA researchers agree with this 'nonsense'.

    But if you are a research meteorologist and an expert in tornadogenesis why not just write an article that is more accurate and a million people will read it.     Science 2.0 is an open science community so do it better if it's wrong.
    I like pie!

    to much writting!!!