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Thid past week the “Klinikum rechts der Isar” of the Technical University of Munich saw the first transplant of complete arms after several years of preparatory work.

The patient's name was not released, and all that is known about the the identity of the arm donor is that it was a young person who died shortly before the surgery.

The patient, doing well given the circumstances, was operated on by the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery (Director Prof. Hans-Günther Machens). The procedure, with a team of 40 people participating, was headed by PD Dr. Christoph Höhnke (Head of the transplant team, Senior Physician of the Clinic for Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery) and Prof. Edgar Biemer (long-standing ex-board member of the plastic surgery division).

Rapid natural climate change was happening 12,700 years ago, write geoscientists who say they have proved for the first time that an extremely fast climate change happened in Western Europe long before man-made changes in the atmosphere, and is causatively associated with a sudden change in the wind systems.

Achim Brauer, Peter Dulski and Jörg Negendank, (emeritus Professor) from the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Gerald Haug from the DFG-Leibniz Center for Surface Processes and Climate Studies at the University of Potsdam and the ETH in Zurich, and Daniel Sigman from the Princeton University did the study.

The proof of an extreme cooling within a short number of years 12,700 years ago was attained in sediments of the volcanic lake “Meerfelder Maar” in the Eifel, Germany. The seasonally layered deposits allow to precisely determine the rate of climate change.

Everyone has pressure to perform and fit in at work; name any demographic and they will say it is tougher for them than it is for others. Is it equally hard for everyone and are some groups making it even harder on themselves?

Sociologists Marlese Durr of Wright State University and her co-author Adia Harvey Wingfield of Georgia State University at the the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA) say it is tougher for black women professionals than white women, lesbian women, all men, Hispanics, Latinos, Asians and even the French in America because black professionals engage in two types of "emotional performance" in the workplace that they say others do not: General etiquette and 'racialized' emotion maintenance.

And black women professionals place even more pressure on themselves, they state. Whether it's stressful, inauthentic or downright draining, Durr claims that emotional labor is "a crucial part of black women's self-presentation in work and social public spaces." These efforts to fit in can, in effect, make African American women feel isolated, alienated, and frustrated.

Ohio State University researchers have developed a new method of measuring school quality based on schools’ 'impact on learning' and their results say that summer vacations and parent incomes have more to do with low test scores than the quality of the schools.

Using this 'impact' measure, about three-quarters of the schools now considered “failing” because of their low test scores would no longer would be failing.

A school system measuring tool where everyone is above average even if they have poor test scores and where good test scores can still mean failure? Is that legitimate or is it just Outcome Based Education for education?

The recent suicide of Army scientist Bruce E. Ivins, shortly after being implicated, brought a likely end to the Anthrax scare of 2001 but, while information on this specific case remains sealed, the Global Terrorism Database at the University of Maryland is unclassified and available online to researchers. It contains more than 85,000 terror incidents since 1970. Hundreds of details associated with each incident are included to make the tool most useful to social scientists.

It shows that the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States may be the only ones on record.

Bio-chemical terrorist attacks are very rare, according to Gary LaFree, director of the Global Terrorism Database at the University of Maryland, part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security-funded National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START).

Male circumcision has been performed as far back as ancient Egypt, and the practice has continued through the ensuing centuries for religious, cultural and sociopolitical reasons.

Performing circumcision for potential health benefits gained momentum in the 19th century with the advent of anesthesia and the initial epidemiological studies demonstrating lower rates of venereal diseases in circumcised men. Recent studies have shown that circumcised men are at significantly lower risk of urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis and chancroid.

Additional studies point to lower risk of invasive penile carcinoma, gonorrhea and chlamydia (in female partners).