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Sexual selection refers to the evolutionary pressures that relate to a species' ability to repel rivals, gather mates and pass on genes. We can observe those processes happening in living animals and, now, detecting sexual selection in the fossil record is also possible, according to researchers. 

It has been challenging to recognize sexual selection in extinct animals. Many fossil animals have elaborate crests, horns, frills and other structures that look like they were used in sexual display but it can be difficult to distinguish these structures from those that might play a role in feeding behavior, escaping predators, controlling body temperature or not having any important function at all.

While male sparrows can fight to the death, a new study shows that they often wave their wings wildly first in an attempt to avoid a dangerous brawl.  Swamp sparrows use wing waves as an aggressive signal to defend their territories and mates from intruding males. 

"For birds, wing waves are like flipping the bird or saying 'put up your dukes. I'm ready to fight,' " said Duke biologist Rindy Anderson.

Regular consumption of deep-fried foods like chicken, french fries and doughnuts has been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer by investigators at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Previous studies have suggested that eating foods made with high-heat cooking methods, like grilled meat, may increase the risk of prostate cancer but this is the first one to implicate deep frying to cancer.

Sick children suffering dehydration from flu or other illnesses may risk significant kidney injury if given drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen, according to researchers writing in the Journal of Pediatrics.

Jason Misurac, M.D., and colleagues from
Indiana University School of Medicine
and Butler University reported that nearly 3 percent of cases of pediatric acute kidney injury over a decade could be traced directly to having taken the common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs. Although small in terms of percentage of total kidney damage cases, they noted that the children with problems associated with NSAIDs included four young patients who needed dialysis, and at least seven who may have suffered permanent kidney damage.

The 1950s are irrationally idealized by some economists and also irrationally derided by some in culture, but a new paper in the Archives of Sexual Behavior seeks to rehabilitate the cultural aspects and make the case that the 1950s use of penicillin, and not birth control or more common abortions a decade later, created the 'sexual revolution' and its rise in in risky, consequence-free behavior during the "swinging 60s". 

In a development that could lead to faster and more effective toxicity tests for airborne chemicals, scientists from Rice University and Nano3D Biosciences have used magnetic levitation to grow some of the most realistic lung tissue ever produced in a laboratory.

In the new study, researchers combined four types of cells to replicate tissue from the wall of the bronchiole deep inside the lung.

In vitro laboratory tests have historically been conducted on 2-D cell cultures grown in flat petri dishes, but scientists have become increasingly aware that cells in flat cultures sometimes behave and interact differently than cells that are immersed in 3-D tissue.