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    Synaesthesia: Smelling A Sound Or Hearing A Color
    By News Staff | December 25th 2007 03:01 PM | 6 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    One person out of every thousand has synaesthesia, a psychological phenomenon in which they can smell a sound or hear a color. Most of these people are not aware they are synaesthetes and feel certain about the way they perceive things: they think the way they experience the world is normal. But, when they realize that something is not quite right, they become disappointed.

    The research field has grown from grapheme-color synaesthesia to include other forms of synaesthesia in which flavors are evoked by music or words (lexical-gustatory synaesthesia), space structures by time units, colors by music, etc.

    Surprising as it may seem, there are people who can smell sounds, see smells or hear colors. Actually, all of us, at some point in our lives, have had this skill (some authors affirm that it is common in newborns). This phenomenon, called “synaesthesia” – from the Greek “syn” (with) and “aisthesis” (sensation) – consists of the pairing of two bodily senses by which the perception of a determined stimulus activates a different subjective perception with no external stimulus (in science, the evoker stimulus is called inducer and the additional experience concurrent).



    In the department of Experimental Psychology and Physiology at the University of Granada, a research group is carrying out pioneer work in Spain on the systematic study of synaesthesia and its relation with perception and emotions. Professor Juan Lupiáñez Castillo and Alicia Callejas Sevilla have devoted many years to the study of this unknown but interesting phenomenon, which affects approximately one person out of every thousand. Many of these people do not even know that they are synaesthetes, as they think they perceive the world normally.

    Callejas’ doctoral thesis is one of the most detailed studies on this phenomenon at an international level, and it is probably the first doctoral thesis on this topic in Europe. Her study covers the various forms of synaesthesia focussing on the most common one: the grapheme-color type (for people with this form of synaesthesia, letters, words and numbers evoke colors in an automatic and involuntary way).

    One of the distinctive characteristics of this form of synaesthesia is the fact that people are certain about their perceptions: they feel that their way of experiencing the world is correct, and they become disappointed when they realize there is something that is not quite right. ‘Therefore, when a person with grapheme-color synaesthesia indicates that the word table is blue, it is quite probable that if he or she ever sees the same word written in a color other than blue, this word will appear to him or her as wrong and consider it a mistake. The synaesthete might even point out that the word is ugly or that he or she does not like it because it is not correct,’ affirms Callejas.

    Consequently, finding the word table written in red might be unpleasant whereas seeing it in blue might be agreeable. This emotional reaction associated with how synaesthetes perceive consistent or inconsistent stimuli is an extremely interesting subject and has been studied for the first time in this doctoral thesis.

    Some of Callejas’ conclusions show that these emotional reactions occur automatically and can not be ignored. Moreover, they can affect the synaesthete to the point of slanting his or her preferences when faced with certain stimuli which correspond to his or her inner experiences. Even more important is the fact that these emotions can transform how they perceive events associated with these experiences. These events may have no emotional meaning initially but they can become more or less pleasant if they take place at the same time the synaesthete finds a word in the correct or incorrect color.

    ‘Then, there are people for whom time units evoke colors – explains the researcher. It is also common for a synaesthete to see colors when listening to words, sounds in general or music notes (people who can see music, for instance). There are also cases, although fewer, where people can see colors in flavors, others perceive flavors or experience touch sensations when listening to different sounds, some link flavours to touch sensations, etc.’

    These researchers from Granada underline that synaesthetes always experience the same vision, synaesthesia is permanent (a given stimulus always evokes the same Color for one person) and idiosyncratic (it is different for each person). Therefore, if for a synaesthete the word dog is red, every time he or she sees it, it will be perceived as red.

    Even though synaesthesia has been known for a long time, its scientific study is relatively recent. Writings such as the Castel one, in which reference is made to previous studies about a synaesthesia case in a blind person, are found in the 18th century. The evolution of the study of this phenomenon has been spectacular – the number of researchers working on this topic is constantly increasing, as will be evident in the Conference which will take place in Granada – and, as the phase of proving that this phenomenon exists has been overcome, explains Alicia Callejas, ‘we are starting to approach questions of major theoretical importance, and to develop adequate study strategies.’ The results of her research have been published in the following prestigious scientific journals, among others: Cortex, Experimental Brain Research and Consciousness and Cognition.

    Comments

    Hello everyone! You should check this: www.tukan.extra.hu ! There is a great synesthesia test - you can vote what color is 'A' and each letter or number, and see the statistics. Really interesting

    Hi,

    We have built a test which looks at Mirror Touch Synesthesia. It's an interesting test to do but quite long and takes about 20-30 minutes. Basically all you have to do is watch a series of about 90 short videos and rate whether you feel a sensation when you see the subject being touched. There is a questionnaire at the end.

    Please register and do the test here:
    http://surveyvista.com/index/register/p/1/r/sC20fWr

    I guess this is what I could be described as, except my senses of touch and taste are linked. For example, I can reach into my pocket, and if I touch an old copper penny, I can taste it in my mouth. This also works with silver coins, and I can "feel" some smells, bleach for example makes my fingers tingle, even if I don't touch a surface that it has been on.

    I occasionally wonder if I have synesthesia. When I listen to music, I sometimes get this strong, unignorable smell, and sometimes a taste, that lasts throughout the song. But it doesn't happen all the time & comes with conditionals -it reacts only to music, namely the instruments; voices & other daily sounds don't trigger anything in me. It's also a very recent development - within the past one or two years. I sustained a head injury in a car accident & a series of concussions afterward a few years ago - does anyone know if brain injuries can lead to synesthesia? I know strokes & seizures sometimes can.

    Gerhard Adam
    Yes, it is possible.  From what I understand, it is injury to the front sections of the brain that would be the most likely cause.
    Mundus vult decipi
    I learned to play guitar this way. C was orange. D was yellow. F was brown. A was baby blue. A minor purple etc etc... Never knew this was going on for me until someone pointed it out. Just the way it's always been for me. I put on some Ray Lamontagne for instance and I get a lot of brown, beige, yellow.