Pharmacology

Regular marijuana use in adolescence may permanently impair brain function, cognition and increase the risk of developing serious psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, according to a recent study in Neuropsychopharmacology.


Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant compound found in red grapes and other plants, has received widespread attention for being a possible anti-aging compound and is now widely available as a dietary supplement; many claims have been made about its role in explaining the cardiovascular health benefits of red wine, and other foods.

New research in The Journal of Physiology instead suggests that eating a diet rich in antioxidants may actually block or counteract many of the health benefits of exercise, including reduced blood pressure and cholesterol. This is in contrast to studies in animals where resveratrol improved the cardiovascular benefits of exercise.


A new paper in Biology Letters raises more questions about the benefits of vitamins as a health supplement.

High doses of dietary antioxidants such as vitamins are claimed to slow the process of cellular aging by lessening the damage to proteins, lipids and DNA caused by free radicals. Some research has found that the longevity of mice could be extended by administering particular vitamin supplements, despite the supplements' limited effectiveness in reducing free radical damage. However, the opposite was found to be true in voles in a new study.

Oxytocin, a hormone with powerful effects on brain activity that is linked to the formation of social bonds, could have benefits for children with the autism disorder - but it is unlikely, according to the results of a new study.

Autism is a complex condition of unknown cause in which children exhibit reduced interest in other people, impaired social communication skills and repetitive behaviors.
Research in people who are healthy shows oxytocin can increase levels of trust and eye-gazing and improve their identification of emotions in others.
Previous research suggested that oxytocin would be helpful in children with autism as well and so
oxytocin
nasal sprays have grown in popularity.


RXi Pharmaceuticals Corporation, an RNA-targeted technologies company, today announced positive results from their second placebo-controlled Phase 1 study with RXI‑109, an sd-rxRNA compound that targets Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF), and is being developed for the treatment of abnormal dermal scars such as hypertrophic scars and keloids in conjunction with scar revision surgery.

In this study, subjects received small skin incisions in their abdomen and were treated with 3 intradermal doses of RXI‑109 over a 2-week period. This dose escalating study consisted of 3 cohorts of 3 healthy volunteers each. Subjects received RXI‑109 on one side of the abdomen, and placebo on the other side.
Generex Biotechnology has announced the results of a Phase 3 clinical trial of Generex Oral-lyn, their buccal insulin spray product, in preparation for the approval for marketing and commercial distribution of the product in India, to be trademarked there as Oral Recosulin.

The International Diabetes Federation currently estimates there are over 50 million people with diabetes in India.
With increasing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, major patent expiries and generic competition cutting future potential revenue there is no saturation of drug development, there is instead the opposite - but one area shows potential growth: drug delivery systems.

Among the 15 drug delivery systems surveyed by Frost&Sullivan for their Drug Delivery Technology: End-User Preferences, Utilization and Perceptions analysis, physicians preferred topical delivery, either as a transdermal patch or topical gel/cream, and expressed willingness to switch their current mode of therapy to one available in these forms.
Hospira received a positive opinion from the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP), recommending European Commission approval of Inflectra (infliximab) for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and plaque psoriasis.

Inflectra (infliximab) is a biosimilar medicine to the reference medicinal product, Remicade (infliximab), and is the first monoclonal antibody therapy to reach a positive opinion following review via the EMA biosimilars regulatory pathway. A biosimilar developed in-line with EU requirements can be considered a therapeutic alternative to an existing biologic, with comparable quality, efficacy and safety to the reference product.[1] 

A new paper says that exposure to a banned neonicotinoid insecticide causes changes to the genes of the honeybee. The paper was written to support the recent decision taken by the European Commission to temporarily ban three neonicotinoids amid concerns that they could be linked to bee deaths.

Honeybees pollinate one-third of the food that we eat and the experiment looked at changes in the activity of honeybee genes linked to one of the recently banned neonicotinoids, imidacloprid.

Nearly 70 percent of Americans take at least one prescription drug and more than 50 percent take two, scholars writing in Mayo Clinic Proceedings say. Antibiotics, antidepressants and painkilling opioids are most commonly prescribed, they found. 20 percent of patients are on five or more prescription medications, according to the findings.