Pharmacology

People attempting to quit smoking without professional help are approximately 60% more likely to report succeeding if they use e-cigarettes than if they use willpower alone or over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapies such as patches or gum, according to a large survey of smokers in England.

The results were adjusted for a wide range of factors that might influence success at quitting, including age, nicotine dependence, previous quit attempts, and whether quitting was gradual or abrupt.


New research does not support claims that fluoridating water adversely affects children's mental development and adult IQ.

The researchers were testing the claim that exposure to levels of fluoride used in community water fluoridation is toxic to the developing brain and can cause IQ deficits.  The data used in the American Journal of Public Health article used data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Study, which   has followed nearly all aspects of the health and development of around 1,000 people born in Dunedin in 1972-1973 up to age 38.  


There was a time, not too long ago, that I was not doing science.  Because I remember that time, I also remember how completely ignorant I was of science. 

This is no more apparent than the science of cannabinoids, i.e., the stuff in marijuana.  My only knowledge of cannabinoids was that marijuana got you high and cured every disease.  Having spent five years researching THC, I learned that there was a much richer, deeper story than that. 

The venom from marine cone snails, used to immobilize prey, contains numerous peptides called conotoxins, some of which can act as painkillers in mammals.

A recent study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which one conotoxin, Vc1.1, inhibits pain. The findings help explain the analgesic powers of this naturally occurring toxin and could eventually lead to the development of synthetic forms of Vc1.1 to treat certain types of neuropathic pain in humans.


A study of Italians who consume a diet rich in resveratrol — the compound found in red wine, dark chocolate and berries — finds they live no longer than and are just as likely to develop cardiovascular disease or cancer as those who eat a regular diet.


Gamergates look like ordinary workers but inside things are changing: their brains shrink by 25 percent, their ovaries expand to fill their abdomens and their life expectancy jumps from months to years.


Why? Researchers wanted to find out.

So they took some workers from a colony and separated them from their gamergates. These workers effectively formed their own colony and began fighting to establish dominance.

When some of the workers in the new colony (Colony B) began to get the upper hand, they were removed. They found that these dominant ants had begun to produce elevated levels of dopamine – more than other workers, though less than full-fledged gamergates.


Calcium supplements are widely taken by women for bone health and some studies have suggested that calcium supplements bring with them an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

A new study
examined supplemental calcium use and incident cardiovascular disease in a prospective cohort study of 74,245 women in the Nurses' Health Study. The women did not have cardiovascular disease or cancer at the start of the study. They were followed for 24 years to document risk of developing heart attack and stroke.


One of the major goals of pharmaceutical companies is to get through FDA approval so that they can begin selling a drug on the market. 

This step is so important that pharmaceutical companies actually make decisions regarding drugs in their pipeline based on the results of other drug approvals. 

Further, pharmaceutical companies will choose safe diseases to initially test drugs, even if there is no preclinical indication that the drug will be effective for those diseases.  For instance, they go the ocular route because that is not a systemic administration of drugs.  

Emotions like fear, anger, sadness, and joy are how we know people to adjust to their environment and react flexibly to stress and strain.

They are the vital signs of cognitive processes, physiological reactions, and social behavior. How emotions are processed is linked to structures in the brain, i.e. to what is known as the limbic system. Within this system, researchers believe the amygdala plays a central role – above all it processes negative emotions like anxiety and fear.

If the activity of the amygdala becomes unbalanced, depression and anxiety disorders may develop.


New cancer therapies, particularly agents that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, have been successful and are now used as a first line therapy for some tumors, but almost 100% of patients who take VEGF inhibitors (VEGFIs) develop high blood pressure, and a subset develops severe hypertension.

The mechanisms underlying VEGF inhibitor-induced hypertension need to be better understood and there is a need for clear guidelines and improved management, say investigators behind the review in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology.