Ginseng Araliaceae

Panax pseudoginseng Wall. Family Araliaceae is a very rare 30-60 cm tall erect herb distributed in the interior temperate mountainous regions of Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal and China, recorded in the Western Himalayas from Pithoragarh district in Uttar Pradesh.

The root of Asian ginseng contains active chemical components called ginsenosides (or panaxosides) that are thought to be responsible for the herb's medicinal properties. The root is dried and used to make tablets or capsules, extracts, and teas, as well as creams or other preparations for external use.

Ginseng is used as a stimulant. It is reputed to have a sedative effect on the cerebrum and a mildly stimultating action on the vital centers. It is aromatic bitter, stomachic and demulcent, and is considered alliterative, carminative, tonic, expectorant and antipyretic. It is used as a masticatory. It is also a gonadotrophic agent containing little toxic substance. Ginseng has a deep influence on metabolism and prevents the development of atherosclerosis. It has the capacity of reducing high blood pressure and raising low blood pressure to the normal level. For this reason, it is admininstered in cases of hypertension and hypotension. Some studies have shown that Asian ginseng may lower blood glucose. Other studies indicate possible beneficial effects on immune function.

Besides Panax pseudoginseng Wall. which is principal source of drug ginseng P. ginseng Mey., (Chinese or Asiatic ginseng), P. quinquefolium Linn. (American ginseng ) and P. japonicus (Japanese ginseng),

Mey. are the principal sources. Asian ginseng is native to China and Korea and has been used in various systems of medicine for many centuries. Asian ginseng is one of several types of true ginseng (another is American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius). Four different plant species related to the commercial ginseng, commonly found in India are: P.bipinnatifidus, P. burkillianus Bennet&Viswanathan, P. pseudoginseng Wall. and P. sikkimensis Banerjee. Of these, P. pseudoginseng provides the Chinese wonder drug, "Sanchi" used to cure a number of diseases including cancer.An herb called Siberian ginseng or eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is not a true ginseng.

Fig 3.1 Asian ginseng.

Indian pseudoginseng has been found to be a rich source of oleanolic acid saponins while dammarane saponins are present in minor quantities. Saponin fraction of pseudoginseng displayed adaptogenic, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory activities comparable with Korean ginseng. The active principles present in ginseng have not been clearly

charactized. The drug from both the Chinese and Amercian sources was reported to contian a glcoside, panaquilon, besides a saponin

(0.75-1%), a bitter substance, resin, tannin, volatile oil (contaning a

terpene, panacen), sugars, starch and mucilage.

A small genus of perennial herbs distributed in the north temperate

zone in East Asia and North America. Two species, P. quinquefolium and P. schinseng, supply the drug, Amercian and Chinese Ginseng Root respectively. They do not occur in India but ginseng roots are probably imported; data relating to their import are not available.

P. schinseng Nees syn. P. ginseng Mey. (ASIATIC or CHINESE GINSENG) is a perennial herb indigenous to the forests of eastern Asia and cultivated in northern China, Korea and Japan. ginseng, is now being used to a large extent in modern medicine. India imports true ginseng mainly from Indonesia and Singapore.


Coriandurm sativum Linn


It is extensively grown in India and Nepal.

The fruits including seeds are stimulant, pectoral, antipyretic

and anthelmintic. The fruits are considered carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant and aphrodisiac. They are used chiefly to conceal the odour of other medicines and to correct the griping qualities of rhubarb and senna. Dried seeds are reported to possess diuretic and aphrodisiac properties. The seeds are chewed to correct foul breath. They are considered also to lessen the intoxicating effects of spirituous liquors.

An infusion of fruits in combination with cardamom and caraway seeds is given in intestinal disorders. The fruits are also given in spermatorrhoea, leucorrhoea and in

rheumatic fever. Coriander is also used as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic medicines prescribed for curing indigestion, diarrhoea, dysentery and urinary troubles. An infusion of the seeds is useful in flatulence, indigestion, vomitting and other intestinal disorders; it is also used in bleeding piles, rheumatism, neuralgia, caphalagia, and locally in eye-infection.

Its prescribed in dyspepsia, inflammation or gastro-intestinal tract, burning sensation of body, nausea and broncial disorders.

Commercial oil is extensively adulterated with sweet orange oil, cedar-wood oil, turpentine and anethole or aniseed


Chemical Constituent Analysis of fruits gave the following values: moisture,

11.2; protein, 14.1; fat (ether extract), 16.1; carbohydrate, 21.6; fibre, 32.6; mineral matter, 4.4; calcium, 0.63; and phosphorus, 0.37%; iron, 17.9 mg./100 g. The leaves constitute

a rich source of vitamin C (250 mg./100 g.), and of carotene (5,200 µg./100 g.)

The aromatic odour and taste of coriander fruits is due to an essential oil. The amount of oil varies considerably according to the source of the fruits, Indian coriander being rather poor in oil content.

Coriander oil is a colourless, pale yellow liquid, having the characteristic odour and taste of coriander. Indian coriander oil has the following analytical constants: d15°15°, 0.8715-0.876; nD25°, 1.4569-1.4612; [a]D25°, +10° to +13°; sap. val., 30.0-54.3.. The ranges of constants reported

are: sp. gr., 0.870-0.885; n, 1.4635-1.4760; [a], +7°

to +14°; acid val., 1-5; and ester val., 3-22

The chief constituent of the oil is coriandrol (C10H17OH), a terpene tertiary alcohol, now known to be identical with d -linalool (sp. gr., 0.868; b.p., 194-98ø), the concentration of which varies in oils from different sources from 45 to 70%. The other minor constituents of the oil are : a and á-pinene, p -cymene, dipentene,g-terpinene, phellandrene, terpinolene, and traces of geraniol, borneol, n -decylic aldehyde and esters of acetic and decylic acids.