Genetics & Molecular Biology

It is very difficult to see some plus point in something good. It’s very easy to criticize. All animals who have frontal eyes are fighter type like lion , tiger, and man also. Man is part of animal kingdom and not a super creation or master of creation It is in his habit to quarrel. Perhaps he derives a pleasure to pick up a quarrel . Mahatma Gandhi gave a principle of non violence. How many want to follow it ? Where is eternal peace ? If you are at peace with yourself you will be at peace with others. All animals with eyes on both side of the nose are quite animals e.g. birds . They don’t quarrel. Humans developed language and not other way round. When humans will stop quarreling and work for world peace and happiness. Earth belongs to all of us
The longest human protein is Titin with 34,350 amino acids. The smallest human protein is 44 amino acids but it could be an abortive translation from the 5' UTR of another mRNA. The smallest functional polypeptide is glutathione with only three amino acids.

BTW, proline is technically not even an amino acid much less a polypeptide. Chignolin is a man-made decapeptide so if you synthesize a GG dipeptide, it would be the smallest possible amino acid polymer.

If you remember your visit to an airport of Moskow, or Indira Gandhi Airport terminal 2 of yesteryears, or airports of even european countries some 20 or 30 years ago there was a distinct feeling where you have landed. There was reflection of culture of the region , its food, its local variety of handicrafts and a flair of the country quite apparent of your country of landing. It has changed. If you are guided to any airport of the world as far as I have seen and open your eyes after landingin some shopping area or lounge you can not tell where you are. Its an era of globalization. Same brands of cigeratte and wine and whisky are sold everywhere irrespective of culture, or national identity.
Scientists have altered cardiac muscle cells to make them controllable with light and showed an ability to cause conditions such as arrhythmia in genetically modified mice, which opens up new possibilities for researching the development and therefore treatment of arrhythmias. 

Tobias Brügmann and his colleagues from the University of Bonn’s Institute of Physiology I used a “channelrhodopsin” for their experiments - a type of light sensor. At the same time, it can act as an ion channel in the cell membrane because when stimulated with blue light, this channel opens, and positive ions flow into the cell. This causes a change in the cell membrane’s pressure, which stimulates cardiac muscle cells to contract.
During a meeting a senior person said he does not need extension any more as he has been asked to publish in a journal with a high impact factor This statement is not from any real situation but improvised to bring out a point. Good impact factor journals require hi degree of sophistication and genomic proteomic or metabolomic research or vast experience of dealing in modern areas. Life sciences journal by and large have lower impact factor as compared to Biophysics etc. I still remember my late Professor Dr Neumann advised one of my student who has worked in his laboratory on some salinity problems to publish the paper in journal from the region where the research has some relevance.
Stem cells help regenerate or repair damaged tissues, primarily by releasing growth factors that encourage existing cells in the human body to function and grow.

There has been an ongoing ethical controversy about human embryonic stem cell research but progress has been made nicely using adult stem cells, such as from marrow donors.
Proteins are the heavy lifters of cells, doing numerous tasks, but how the shape of a protein determines function remains one of the most important questions in the physics of biology.

Proteins are not the static, Lego-like objects you might see in an x-ray photograph in a textbook, they are made from long chains of amino acids scrunched into various blobs and a protein is always changing to slightly different structural arrangements due to thermal motion of its atoms. Even a modest-sized protein like myoglobin has an unimaginable number of possible arrangements of its atoms and each of these arrangements slightly changes its function.
Plant Cell and Tissue Culture - A Tool in Biotechnology Basics and Application Series: Principles and Practice Neumann, Karl-Hermann, Kumar, Ashwani, Imani, Jafargholi 2009, IX, 333 p. 153 illus., Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-540-93882-8
Mainly two types of RNA viz coding RNA and non-coding RNA were recognised. Although 90 percent of the genome is transcribed but only a small fraction i.e. 1.5 percent transcribed RNA is used for coding the protein sequence as mRNA. The major portion of non-coding RNA ( which mainly comprised of rRNA, tRNA , mi RNA, si RNA, snoRNA and snRNA) ) has been assigned several functions in disease development including their role in cancer development. Around 88.5 percent of the RNA transcripts are the source of noncoding RNA having regulatory functions.