A dynamic gel made of DNA mechanically responds to stimuli in much the same way that cells do. This DNA gel, at only 10 microns in width, is roughly the size of a eukaryotic cell, the type of cell of which humans are made. The miniscule gel contains within it stiff DNA nanotubes linked together by longer, flexible DNA strands that serve as the substrate for molecular motors.
We won't have artificial muscles and self-propelled goo just yet, but Omar Saleh and Deborah Fygenson of UC Santa Barbara feel like they have gotten a lot closer.
Using a bacterial motor protein called FtsK50C, the scientists can cause the gel to react in the same way cytoskeletons react to the motor protein myosin—by contracting and stiffening. The protein binds to predetermined surfaces on the long linking filaments, and reels them in, shortening them and bringing the stiffer nanotubes closer together. To determine the gel's movement the scientists attached a tiny bead to its surface and measured its position before and after activation with the motor protein.
A typical DNA gel used for the active mechanics study. In this fluorescent micrograph, the stiff DNA nanotubes are visible as glowing green and red fibers. Credit: UCSB
"This is a whole new kind of responsive gel, or what some might call a 'smart' material," said Saleh, associate professor of materials affiliated with UC Santa Barbara's Biomolecular Science and Engineering program. "The gel has active mechanical capabilities in that it generates forces independently, leading to changes in elasticity or shape, when fed ATP molecules for energy—much like a living cell."
The breakthrough, said Saleh, is that this gel "quantitatively shows similar active fluctuations and mechanics to cells."
"DNA gives you a lot more design control," said Fygenson, associate professor of physics and also affiliated with UC Santa Barbara's BMSE program. "This system is exciting because we can build nano-scale filaments to specifications." Using DNA design, she said, they can control the stiffness of the nanotubes and the manner and extent of their cross-linking, which will determine how the gel responds to stimuli.
"This new material could provide a means for controllably testing active gel mechanics in a way that will tell us more about how the cytoskeleton works," Saleh said. Like a cell, which consumes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for energy, the DNA gel's movement runs on ATP, allowing for faster, stronger mechanics than other smart gels based on synthetic polymers.
The DNA gel is composed of stiff DNA nanotubes connected to each other via long, flexible DNA linkers. A motor protein, FtsK50C, binds to special sites on the linkers. When ATP, a biochemical fuel, is allowed to permeate the gel, the motor molecules reel in the linkers to which they are bound, drawing nanotubes together, and stiffening the gel. Credit: Peter Allen, UCSB
"The development of active gels represents a water-shed event for the broader materials community," commented Craig Hawker, director of the Materials Research Laboratory at UCSB: an NSF MRSEC, which provided seed money for their research. "By exploiting cellular building blocks, it offers unique design parameters when compared to existing gel systems that can be used in a wide range of both established biomedical applications as well as totally new applications."
The project has potential applications for a variety of fields, including smart materials, artificial muscle, understanding cytoskeletal mechanics and research into nonequilibrium physics, as well as DNA nanotechnology. Long-term implications of this research are significant, Hawker added, with the final result being "a fundamental breakthrough in soft-materials science and engineering."
Having created a gel that can replicate contractions, Saleh and Fygenson are now looking to refine their technique and enable distinct movements, such as twisting and crawling, or using other motor proteins that would allow the gel to mimic other cell behaviors, such as shape-shifting and dividing.
"Biology provides a wide range of motors that we have only begun to explore," Saleh said.
"And the suite of nanostructure designs and geometries at our disposal is nearly limitless," echoed Fygenson.
Published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- The Alleged Perversion of Geoff Marcy and Sexual Harassment.
- Could You See Moon City Lights Or A Greenhouse From Earth? Just For Fun
- 'Blind Analysis' Used In Physics Could Reduce Bias In Social And Life Sciences Papers
- To Make EU Food Sector Renewable Energy Viable, Less Meat And More...organic Veggies?
- Environmental Activism Is Good For Business
- An Easy Problem
- What Do EU Countries Give Up When They Opt-out Of GMO Crops? And For Whom?
- "As person suppliers get together and reveal what they have learned in the market, a brand new industry..."
- "Some of the very popular choices for top home dependent business business companies tend to be..."
- "With five increases in magnitude, they are dimmer by a factor of 100. I just looked up the..."
- "Quite the contrary - my reasoning is that of a statistician and yours that of a physicist. That..."
- "So cinnabar is non-toxic, because it's natural, when processed in the magical TCM way? Interesting..."
- OxyContin-for-Kids Debate, Now National, Intensifies
- Golden Rice Moves Closer to Reality in Asia
- C. Diff. Can Be Controlled, With Relative Ease
- FDA-Approved Test for Meningitis is a Home Run
- Trends In Smoking – Chinese Men In Peril, American Women Get Better Cessation
- Counter-Point: Activists Operate By Outrage, Not Fear
- Social networks can motivate people to exercise more
- Hospitals sicken many by withholding food and sleep
- Ancient rocks record first evidence for photosynthesis that made oxygen
- EpiPens: Though anaphylaxis is rare, accidents are common
- To reach CO2 goals without returning to the Dark Ages combine technologies with stable policies