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When is it time for parents to help and when it is time to back away?

Since kids were having children of their own at age 18 a century ago it seems obvious that hovering over college-age students is not needed.  And a new paper in Journal of Child and Family Studies
 says that college students with over-controlling parents are more likely to be depressed and less satisfied with their lives. This so-called helicopter parenting style negatively affects students' well-being by violating their need to feel both autonomous and competent.

Wind energy is not very efficient and activists have turned on it because 300,000 out of 10,000,000,000 birds are killed by wind turbines each year. Without subsidies it would not exist but exist it does, only now manufacturers have had to discover physics they did not anticipate.

Wind turbine failures primarily happen because components are weakened under turbulent air flow conditions and then need to be replaced, at significant cost.

Ancient carbon trapped in Arctic permafrost is extremely sensitive to sunlight and can release climate-warming carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere faster than previously thought if exposed to the surface when long-frozen soils melt and collapse..

They studied places in Arctic Alaska where permafrost is melting and is causing the overlying land surface to collapse, forming erosional holes and landslides and exposing long-buried soils to sunlight, and found that sunlight increases bacterial conversion of exposed soil carbon into carbon dioxide gas by at least 40 percent compared to carbon that remains in the dark.

Dance is a beautiful form of expression, but it can be physically taxing and strenuous on the human body, particularly for children and adolescents.

According to a new analysis, between 1991 and 2007 the annual number of dance-related injuries increased 37 percent, from 6,175 to 8,477 injuries. Sprains and/or strains were the most common types of dance-related injuries at 52 percent, with falls (45 percent) being the most common causes of injuries. 

A group has created a new computer system that can quickly reconstruct protolanguages, the rudimentary ancient tongues from which modern languages evolved. And their tool is already 85 percent as accurate as the manual reconstructions performed by expert linguists, they write in PNAS.

Protolanguages are reconstructed by grouping words with common meanings from related modern languages, analyzing common features, and then applying sound-change rules and other criteria to derive the common parent.

The new tool designed by Bouchard-Côté and colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley analyzes sound changes at the level of basic phonetic units, and can operate at much greater scale than previous computerized tools.