Physics

Dark matter is believed to account for 85 per cent of the Universe’s mass but has never been detected.   Scientists inferred its existence from gravitational effects of objects in space more than 75 years ago and it has become quite prominent in physics, for something that's never been seen or verified.

The international Virgo Consortium  say they can change that and have used a massive computer simulation showing the evolution of a galaxy like the Milky Way to “see” gamma-rays given off by dark matter.  They say their findings, published in Nature, could help NASA’s Fermi Telescope in its search for the dark matter and open a new chapter in our understanding of the Universe.
Scientists have long been on the hunt for evidence of antimatter, matter's arch nemesis and a staple of science fiction in the last century, that might be left over from the very early Universe.  But the latest  results using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory suggest the search is not going to get any easier.

Antimatter would be made up of elementary particles, each of which has the same mass as their corresponding matter counterparts --protons, neutrons and electrons -- but the opposite charges and magnetic properties. When matter and antimatter particles collide, theory says they annihilate each other and produce energy according to Einstein's famous equation, E=mc2.
Water is the most common and important material in nature but exactly what is water on earth and what properties does it have?

It's a more challenging problem than people think.  
The dense, hot, radioactive core of the Sun rotates significantly more slowly than the layer next to it, the radiative zone, a Stanford solar physicist has concluded. According to Peter Sturrock, professor emeritus of applied physics, the idea of a slower core has been hinted at before, but his paper published in the Astrophysical Journal provides for the first time a precise rotation rate.

- The core spins round once every 28.4 days

- The radiative zone rotates once every 26.9 days

- The surface rotates faster still-once every 25.2 days.
Quantum computing is the Holy Grail of processing.    The analogy is apt because, like that relic of legend, no one is sure exactly what it looks like but we all know it has awesome power.  

Another step towards quantum computing was achieved when an international team of scientists were able to successfully store and retrieve information - using the nucleus of an atom.
Scientists at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz have, for the first time, succeeded in rendering the spatial distribution of individual atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate visible. Bose-Einstein condensates are small, ultracold gas clouds which, due to their low temperatures, can no longer be described in terms of traditional physics but must be described using the laws of quantum mechanics.
We believe we know a lot about the universe but there's a lot left to be explained, especially about its origins. A team of cosmologists from the University of the Basque Country are searching for a model that best explains how the universe evolved - mathematically.

One of the phenomena that standard models of physics have not yet been able to explain is that of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Although Einstein proposed a static model to describe the Cosmos, phenomena like supernovas tell us the universe is expanding.
Mystery is unfolding at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Six tonnes of helium, not one as told before in the LHC news, were released accidentally into the tunnel. That is 40 percent of the helium inventory at the sector 3-4 as documented in an interim summary report* dated 15 October 2008.

Accident investigation is ongoing. Many magnets appear to be damaged: 5 quadrupoles and 24 dipoles, for now. Also, the detection system requires work. This is not the whole story. I will write more once I digest the interim summary report.

* CERN/AT/PhL Document EDMS 973073 dated 15 October 2008.










 





Did you know there was such a thing as 'Quantum Darwinism'?  Indeed there is, and it postulates the theory that quantum mechanical states are selected and reproduced.

Theoretical proof of stable and measurable states extending over two quantum dots and creating offspring has now been provided, say researchers at the Institute of Physics at the University of Leoben, together
with colleagues from the Arizona State University. This supports the notion of what is known as Quantum Darwinism, which makes the selection and reproduction of quantum mechanical states responsible for the
way in which our reality is perceived.
 
Despite thousands of years of research, astronomers know next to nothing about how the universe is structured. One theory is that large galaxies are clustered together on structures similar to giant soap bubbles, with tinier galaxies sprinkled on the surface of this "soapy" layer. 

New observations from Tel Aviv University may be giving new strength to this theory. A team led by Dr. Noah Brosch, Director of the Tel Aviv University-owned Wise Observatory, say they have uncovered what they believe are visible traces of a "filament" of dark matter –– an entity on which galaxies meet, cluster and form. A filament can originate at the junction of two "soap bubbles," where the thin membrane is thicker.