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Will Climate Change Also Change The Taste Of Coffee?

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Climate Tipping Points From The Past Can Help Better Predict What May Happen Next

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Like coronavirus, Hepatitis C was only discovered as unique a few decades ago, but in that time science took its 2 million new HCV infections every year, with an estimated 70 million carriers of the virus globally, and 400,000 deaths annually to finding a cure. 

Directly acting antivirals (DAAs) can now stop it and therefore prevent the liver cirrhosis and liver cancer that can develop. Next up, said Professor Sir Michael Houghton at the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, who won the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology along with three other scientists for discovering it was distinct in 1989, is a vaccine.
Two approaches in development may lead to an inhalable COVID-19 vaccine that is scalable and can be transported and stored at room temperature.

They'll be too late to help with the actual COVID-19 but since coronavirus constantly mutates, like the flu, and 2019 was the third coronavirus pandemic in the last 17 years, it could be valuable for the next iteration.

One strategy employs modified bacteriophage particles that can be inhaled to deliver protection via the lungs to the immune system. The other delivers injectable adeno-associated virus-phage particles that directly encode protection against the virus in immune cells. They're only in rodents so far but they produced antibodies.

The first two COVID-19 vaccines authorized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilized mRNA technology previously unused in FDA-approved vaccines. One of its chief proponents bounced from research job to research job for low pay because government-controlled science funding prefers guaranteed success for each round of funding rather than the hit-but-we'll-mostly-miss basic research approach of the private sector.  mRNA-based vaccines provide instructions for the body to build and release foreign proteins, such as the spike protein in the case of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but prior to the pandemic government funding agencies believed mRNA was a waste of time.

Now everyone will be rushing to advance mRNA but what is yet to be known; will the benefits last?

Leonardo Da Vinci had no children but he has relatives. 

A new study shows how many and corrects some genealogical errors and documents the continuous male line, from father to son, of the Da Vinci family (later Vinci), from progenitor Michele (born 1331) to grandson Leonardo (6th generation, born 1452) to today; 21 generations in all, including five family branches. It identifies 14 living descendants.

Leonardo himself had (at least) 22 half-brothers but no children. The five family branches are traced from Leonardo's father, ser Piero (5th generation), and half-brother Domenico (6th). Since the 15th generation, data have been collected on over 225 individuals. 
Gold should be uniformly scattered throughout the Earth's crust, not in giant deposits, because it is unreactive. It is one of the most inert metals in the whole Periodic Table, it doesn't easily react with other substances, so it should not have come together in sufficient quantity to mine.

Yet it did, and became prized for its purity and stability and later for its rarity. It's still rare. The World Gold Council estimates that all the gold ever mined in the world would fit into a 20x20x20-meter cube. 

Chemists may have found an answer as to why it should not form into deposits yet did, and it may also explain why many gold miners were at risk from arsenic poisoning.
At an archaeological site in the City of David in Jerusalem, scholars have found an unexplained cache of fossilized shark teeth in an area where there should be none - nearly 40 miles from where they should have naturally occurred nearly 3,000 years ago, just after the death of King Solomon.

Since the teeth were from 66,000,000 years ago, Late Cretaceous, The answer would seem to be simple; they were fossilized, found, and then moved. But why? Did did the owners know they were ancient fossils?