It's football season so along with cheers and yelling you will hear a more dangerous sound; the sharp crack of helmet-to-helmet collisions. Hard collisions can lead to player concussions but the physics of how the impact of a helmet hit transfers to the brain is not yet well understood.
A research team has created a simplified experimental model of the brain and skull inside a helmet during a helmet-to-helmet collision. The model illustrates how the fast vibrational motion of the hit translates into a sloshing motion of the brain inside the skull.
Murray Korman, a professor in the physics department at the U.S. Naval Academy, worked with Duncan Miller during the course of a semester to develop the experimental model. To simulate a side collision, the researchers hung one helmet from the ceiling with clothesline and swung the second helmet into the first, like a pendulum. Accelerometers mounted on the helmets recorded the vibrations before, during, and after the hit.
Figuring out simple ways to model a human head inside the helmets was a challenge, Korman notes. Human cadavers were out, and crash test mannequins were too expensive. After reading up on skull vibrations, the team settled on a wide plastic hoop, shaped like the skirt of a bell. "They say that when you get hit, you get your bell rung. No pun intended, but your skull does kind of ring like a bell," Korman says.
The researchers modeled the brain as a brass cylinder cushioned in a slot carved out of open-cell foam that mimicked fluid within the brain cavity. By choosing simple materials the researchers minimized the complexity of their set-up while retaining those elements needed to capture the essential motions of the brain and the skull. They found that their brass cylinder brain sloshed back and forth within the skull much more slowly than the rate of vibration of the initial hit. Building a model is important, Korman notes, because it can help determine how a measurable parameter, like the acceleration of a helmet during a hit, would translate into potentially damaging brain motion. "The ultimate damage comes when the brain hits the side of the skull," Korman says.
Korman says there is still a lot of work to do to improve the model. He hopes in the future to collaborate with biophysicists to incorporate more detailed knowledge of the material properties of the brain and skull. Ultimately, the model might be used to test new helmets designed to better protect the brain from hits. Korman describes futuristic helmets that might crumple on impact like plastic car bumpers, leaving the only bell ringing on the field to be done by the marching band.
The researchers will present their findings at the 164th meeting of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) next week in Kansas City, Missouri.
- PHYSICAL SCIENCES
- EARTH SCIENCES
- LIFE SCIENCES
- SOCIAL SCIENCES
Subscribe to the newsletter
Stay in touch with the scientific world!
Know Science And Want To Write?
- The Real Meaning Of The Blue Black White Gold Dress
- How Mr. Spock Changed Our Perception Of Science
- How Would Life Develop If Fundamental Physics Constants Were Different?
- Whole Food Diet Linked To Greater Cognitive Dysfunction In Alzheimer’s
- It's Life, Jim, But Not As We Know It
- Men With Short Index Fingers And Long Ring Fingers Are Nicer To Women
- "It's an ambiguity illusion, which is not an optical illusion but colloquially called such. Google..."
- "And people wonder why Elizabeth Warren was claiming a tie to those with First Nation status? It's..."
- "This meme is not something I'd usually get engaged in. But I think there is some value in seeking..."
- " Of course there is no slowdown at the poles (or it will happen in the near future due to a time..."
- "Hello David:I am sorry my graphic caused some confusion. This is suppose to roughly represent..."
- New compounds protect nervous system from structural damage of MS
- Happy Money 2.0: You can buy happiness
- Even easier than surveys: Finding psychological insights through social media
- Reasons for ibrutinib therapy discontinuation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- First detailed evidence of bacteria at the lower size limit of life