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Tooth Evolution Reproduced By Manipulating Embryonic Development Of Mice

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Infants At Greater Risk Of Death On Commercial Airline Flights

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Calorie restriction is a hot topic in discussions of aging but most studies use mice that were weaned with calorie restriction as test subjects whereas humans would have to adopt that lifestyle later in life if they were to grow normally.

Research continues to see how a restricted calorie diet impacts the aging process. Working with yeast cells, University of Washington scientists have linked ribosomes, the protein-making factories in living cells, and Gcn4, a specialized protein that aids in the expression of genetic information, to the pathways related to dietary response and aging.

Previous research has shown that the lifespan-extending properties of dietary restriction are mediated in part by reduced signaling through TOR, an enzyme involved in many vital operations in a cell. When an organism has less TOR signaling in response to dietary restriction, one side effect is that the organism also decreases the rate at which it makes new proteins, a process called translation.

Mars, Venus, Uranus. They're all still planets. So it goes with the human brain and gender. While males and females might sometimes act as though they come from different planets, a new study in flies suggests the brain is largely unisex.

By artificially triggering the neurons responsible for singing —normally a male only activity - researchers have made female flies play their first tune.

Male flies work hard to convince females to mate with them, often by showing a talent such as sticking out one wing and vibrating it to produce sound. Earlier studies had identified the neurons responsible for the male singing behavior but it seemed that females had that circuit too, even though they don’t sing.

The blueprint for the human body is encoded in genes. Gene expression is the process by which those blueprints are converted into proteins that make up the body’s structures and send its signals.

When molecular biologists began analyzing the complete set of human genes (the human genome) in 2001, one surprise was that humans have as few as 30,000 genes when, given their complexity, they should have more than 100,000. How can humans have one-fifth as much genetic material as wheat, for instance, or share one quarter of their genes with fish?

One answer is that humans do more with fewer genes. While genes consist of chains of deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), they are put into practice by chains of ribonucleic acid chains (RNA), which are modified copies of DNA. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is transported to cellular factories called ribosomes that receive instructions for building proteins by “reading” mRNA templates, a process called translation.

A lot of discussion on emissions revolves around mitigation rather than optimization but researchers at TU Delft have shown that creating an improved aerodynamic shape for truck trailers by mounting sideskirts can lead to a cut in fuel consumption and emissions of up to as much as 15%.

Earlier promising predictions, based on mathematical models and wind tunnel tests have been confirmed during road tests with an adapted trailer. This means that public-private platform PART (Platform for Aerodynamic Road Transport), has produced an application which can immediately be put into production.

It is expected that the cost of fitting aerodynamically-shaped sideskirts will be recouped within two years. Furthermore, the sideskirts can be fitted to approximately half the trucks currently in use in the Netherlands as the skirts can also be retrofitted.


Cracks in buildings that close without external help may seem a little far fetched but we already have a good template in the human body's ability to heal wounds by sending blood platelets to the affected area. In most cases the healing occurs without any need for external coagulants.

The body's natural response to damage was the starting point for the development of self-repairing polymer materials with the ability to recover with minimal external help.

The chemical marks littering the DNA inside our cells have been like trees in front of us - important, but we couldn't see the whole forest so we could study one gene at a time.

New high-throughput DNA sequencing technology has enabled researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies to map the precise position of individual DNA modifications throughout the genome of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and chart its effect on the activity of any of Arabidopsis’ roughly 26,000 genes.

The Salk study, which appears today in Cell, paints a detailed picture of a dynamic and ever-changing, yet highly controlled, epigenome, the layer of genetic control beyond the regulation inherent in the sequence of the genes themselves.