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    Next Step In Robotics: A Star Wars Imperial Walker
    By Hank Campbell | May 26th 2010 03:41 PM | 13 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    About Hank

    I'm the founder of Science 2.0® and co-author of "Science Left Behind".

    A wise man once said Darwin had the greatest idea anyone...

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    Some new research out of the Dynamic Robotics Laboratory at Oregon State University could have practical, humanitarian uses, like prosthetic limbs for humans or helping people in wheelchairs gain 'walking' mobility.  It could also be used for awesome military power.
     
    You know what I am talking about.  Yep, the blurb will read "taking on dangerous missions in the military" but we know it means whacking wholesome rebels in a galaxy far, far away.

    Star Wars Imperial Walker AT-AT Empire Strikes Back
    Credit: Wikipedia, though how they get away without a lawsuit is beyond anyone's understanding.  

    Currently, robotics is nowhere near as interesting as Isaac Asimov led us to believe it would be by now.    Robots are basically doing a job people hate and so would do poorly because they are mind-numbingly dull, like picked something off  of an assembly line or welding the same thing 1,000 times a day.

    The Holy Grail of robotics research is a world where robots can move like humans or animals - no easy thing outside science fiction.  We can move easily over almost any terrain, using a balance of bone and tendon and meat, and even compensate for outside forces,  like holding a cup of coffee level during a bumpy car ride - all without a lot of calories.

    Turns out those two abilities are mutually exclusive, say the OSU researchers, and that becomes part of the energy problem for robots.   Humans deal with problems by flexing opposing pairs of muscles to change the dynamic properties of our arms but for robots, the more it does of one, the less able it is to do of the other. 

    Robots look, well, robotic, when trying to walk.  Good luck getting robots to walk like this:



    Researchers can design robots that level out their gait to be stiff but functional yet the energy requirement is too much for practical applications, says Jonathan Hurst, an assistant professor of robotics and mechanical design at OSU.

    "Researchers have been working toward robot locomotion for a long time based mostly on experience and intuition," said Hurst. "What we've done is taken a step back to analyze the fundamental dynamics of the mechanical system, what behavior is really possible for a given robotic system. A rock can't fly, no matter what software you write for it."

    Here is what they have come up with so far.

    Biped Robot OSU
    Photo courtesy of Oregon State University 

    See???  What did I tell you?  If that isn't an Imperial Walker AT-AT right out of "The Empire Strikes Back" I don't know what is.   If you're old you may think it is something from "War of the Worlds" but you get my point.  

    This design is attempting to converge on the best of both worlds, says Hurst.  "If robotic locomotion is ever to achieve some of what we want, it will have to use less energy.  There are machines that can walk with no active controls at all, using barely any energy, but they fall if they run into the smallest bump. We need to use as much of that passive ability as possible and only use motors or active controls if it's really necessary, so we can save energy in the process."

    They didn't get the concept from  the second-best "Star Wars" movie  but rather from ostriches. Ostriches have a great ability to respond to unexpected disturbances while running and can teach designers how to attain the needed robotic equivalent – combining spring-mass models with force control actuators.

    It could also help them to win what's called the "W" Prize, a $200,000 award promised for the first robot that can move 10 kilometers within 10,000 seconds, through and over obstacles, using less energy than it would take a human to do the same task.   And they got a $750,000 grant from the Human Frontiers Science Program, administered through the National Science Foundation to get it going.

    "Long term, there's no reason we shouldn't be able to build robots or robotic devices with excellent locomotion ability," Hurst said. "Clearly this might be useful for some military or police applications in highly dangerous situations. But I could also see great improvements possible with prosthetic limbs that work much better than existing technology, or even the creation of exoskeletons that might allow someone with limited motor ability to walk effectively."

    So if we don't get an Imperial Walker, we should at least get a Terminator.

    Comments

    total click bait!

    Hank
    What does that mean?
    A very interesting article, Hank! : )
    MarshallBarnes
    Hank:

    Excellent article! The only problem with the practical application of the AT-AT idea is that Luke
    Skywalker already showed the world how to bring one down.  Of course if the opposing forces didn't have the right equipment, it's a different story...  
    Becky Jungbauer
    Marshall makes an excellent point. All the opposition would need would be a modified Incom T-47 airspeeder (aka snowspeeder, or "that thing that Luke flew on Hoth" to the uninitiated) fitted with magnetic harpoon and tow cables, and the "big, giant robot camels" as noted in Something, Something, Something Dark Side would be bantha fodder.
    Hank
    Luddite!   We'd never have submarines or airplanes with that kind of heretical talk.  In a propositional knowledge world, we need AT-ATs before we would ever get defenses against them.  Bantha are farther down the food chain but Walker's are still essential to keeping them fed.
    Becky Jungbauer
    True - I was speaking after the fact re: the opposition. Until the opposition discovered the necessary means to take them down, the AT-ATs would crush everything in sight, with the possible exception of housecats.

    MarshallBarnes
    That's not what I mean Becky. Try anything that you could fire at the legs that would give you a bola effect - the idea is to tangle up the legs, assuming you don't have the fire power take them out. I do weapons design for real, so I was being serious...
    In fact C60 carbon tube along with microchips will replace the robotic structures along with polymer nanotechnology progress ,supported by soalr panels and the xenon diflouride compressed batteries.This wil will be utilised in reactor U235 rod fill up as well as steering remote controlled planes and space ships with the thinking computer integrated circuits.They will begetting information from quantum teleported communications.Intelligent polymer brains wil revolutionise based on stem technology.May be the anamolous hall's effective Corbino flying saucers will take care of the space getting energy from space quantum teleporting domains.Nutronbeam wil be a further guide line in to swallow blackhole bombs by shifting thesameto another pahse.Cold fusion technology will be further developed to supply the energy infra stuctures.But the fate full war ofArmagaddon should be prevented and avoide that comes after 450to 500 years due to whole solar system moving towards agresive uranus vibration between Aquarius and Capricorn juncturs.Man must love and live inpeace to avoid such catstrophic events
    Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar along with Hon. Sir J.Pendry F.R.S of imperial college uk special officer on combustion nano technology along with Dr.GANESAN ,IIT professor ,combustion dept Cape Institute of Technology,Nagercoil formerly with ,KNSK Engineering college ,Nagercoil as research scholar,Anna University with Hubble space research committee of Hon.Roger Davies,Hon.Collin Webbs FRS of Laser dn of Oxford uk,Hon.Marteen Rees ,Emeritus Professor of cosmology Cambridge ,former president of Royal society, London.
    Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar member PNAS ,American ,JILA,NIST ,Hubble Group member on behalf of Loyola college of Engineering and technology ,Member American committee for the Weizman institute of science ,Energy renovation committee cape Institute of Technology,Nagercoil ,former Guest lecturer ,KNSK Enginering college ,Anna University have surprisingly found out genetic mirror

    A very important application of Dr.Russo's investigation of Amezon tribe research that the clay like similar miniature secondary robotic could be holgram simulated to activate the primary Robotics.This along with Xenondifloride powered bateries could be used to collect ER flux generators from Earth's magnetic field thus collecting the rate of change flux interference as more power may be collected at the extreme short distance on longitudinal ellipsoidal ends where the earth's spin will be increased .Also the required compresion in the middle frequency cross polarised bossonova-fermion resonance could used to produce fast gun velocity matter waves could be used to compress the maiddle Xenondiflouride batteries as supporting enengy along with solar energy supports.
    Microwave photonics to produce cross polarised fast matter waves:
    Abstract—The low-loss wide-bandwidth capability of opto-electronic systems makes them attractive for the transmission and processing of microwave signals, while the development of high-capacity optical communication systems has required the use of microwave techniques in optical transmitters and receivers. These two strands have led to the development of the research area of microwave photonics. This paper describes the development of microwave photonic devices, describes their systems applications, and suggests likely areas for future development in matter wave ejections out of frequency combing to zero at c2/f for infinity algorithmic output in producing matter waves.
    An acoustic Stoke and antistoke involved in cross polarised domains between high pressure fermion gas and low pressure boson domains involved as 69 spirals may give some information regarding the air affined and water affined combinations .Stoke and antistoke opposing dynamics in between high pressure negative velocity and low pressure positive velocities call for an amplification in understanding a new Quasi Fluiid dynamics from the earth affined to air affined dynamics stimulated by solar magnetic field evolved as monstrous twisters in middle frequency cross polarization. Bossonova implosions occur when a large number of atoms condense to a point of extreme density, thousands or millions of atoms condensed to the size of a single atom, theoretically capable of creating a micro black hole (yes, a real micro black hole, a microscopic version of a large dieing star collapsing to a black hole then exploding as a Supernova).Feshbach resonances. This will be deviated as cross polarised dynamics by laser velocity selective cross over as unsteady convective diffusion, call for evaluation new quasi quantum mechanical fluid dynamics.
    The split in half spin and full spin electron resonance as quasinatured synchrotron behavior as central dimmer along the cross polarised complex plane must have a meaning in understanding the frequency inversioned or decreased infinite wave length requires an investigation in understanding the bullet wave interference pattern .The interference patterns become so fine that duality wave particles becomes a faster matter wave.
    If we want to disturb the electrons only slightly we could use infra or radio waves by lowering the frequency its wave length can be increased. But some complexities in imaginary plane contribute an amplification by an opposing quadra pole initiate some stoke and antistoke generation-degeneration in the sense that matter wave is produced bullet wave thus produced that penetrate any medium is smoothed along interesting quanta mechanical dynamics. It is in this sense that the electron behaves sometimes as Bossonova wave and sometimes as fermion particle by a complicated game of electron sometimes get cross polarised as dimmer light by going back between through a plate on some strange trajectory. By a cross polarised dynamics its velocity is amplified in between positive pressure, negative velocity and negative pressure positive velocity electron hole cavities. The only function of matter wave is to pilot or guide the matter particles. A sudden softness to penetrate through any medium is possible by understanding the complexcities.This must be deBrogle 45 degree magic wave scattering as a converging and diverging nozzles for amplified resonance. Thus waves produced by the middle frequency cross polarised dynamical system may get amplified that may travel faster than velocity of light at u=c2/f.
    Lower algorithm interpreted: This also comparable with Einstein’s formula m=mo/square root of 1- v2-c2 and mass vanishes at square root 2 c velocity by opposite spins for a funnelling does not explain properly the cross polarised dynamics involved. Quantum mechanics has yet to be reevaluated as I mass imaginary plane as m=mo/i as a n interpretation of mo= im that disappears at the extremities of algorithmic interpretation based on cross polarised neutral plane of fast acceleration and disappearance of mass and realizing it outside a barrier, at the guiding point of a pilot matte wave c2/f and the lower algorithm f ,frequency tending to zero may involved in shifting the electron gun waves into and imaginary plane and realizing it back as real electron after crossing a barrier as part of the trick played by David copper field magic.

    THE definition of the research area of microwave photonics can be considered as falling into two parts. First, the study of opto-electronic devices and systems processing signals at microwave rates. Second, the use of opto-electronic devices and systems for signal handling in microwave systems. Digital optical-fiber systems now carry the bulk of terrestrial long-distance communications traffic and fiber is increasingly being brought into the local access network. With deployed long-distance systems having minimum channel rates of 10 Gb/s and the evolution of the ethernet standard to encompass a transmission rate of 10 Gb/s [1], most future optical communication systems will utilize microwave photonic techniques. The use of opto-electronics in microwave systems has now become a commercial reality in fiber-radio access networks and there are emerging applications in phased-array antennas, electronic warfare, ultrafast noninvasive measurements, and radio astronomy.
    Modulation bandwidth is limited by the photon–electron resonance frequency wp, above which the undamped detected electrical response falls as , (1/wm)4 where is the modulating frequency can be approximated by wp at modulated injection frequency. Interferometric modulators using lithium–niobate and GaAstechnologies have been realized .More recently, injection locking to spectral lines from an optical comb generator has been used to generate frequencies up to 110 GHz [41], [117]. The main practical limitation on optical injection locking is that the locking range is small (typically a few hundred megahertz), so that the slave laser temperatures must be controlled with millikelvin precision, or lasers must be monolithically integrated to achieve thermal tracking.

    Heterodyne OPLL (after [50]). Output spectrum of packaged OPLL (vertical scale: 5 dB/div.,
    horizontal scale: 10 MHz/div., resolution bandwidth: 300 kHz) (after [50]).

    An effective index model for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is reexamined. In a systematic manner, the basic equations are derived. Instead of effective indices of plane reference waveguides, effective frequencies of plane reference resonators appear. Calculations of the threshold gain and lasing wavelength of a long-wavelength VCSEL show the usefulness of the method and clarify the waveguiding mechanisms in VCSELs, Both dispersion and waveguiding influence the lasing wavelength remarkably.
    In this paper, we present an integrated circuit technology suitable for low-power bias-free optical control of microwave circuits and antennas. We have integrated miniature photovoltaic arrays with varactor diodes and thin-film resistors to form monolithic optically variable capacitors (OVCs). For the monolithic OVC described here, only 1.5 mW of optical power was required for more than 2:1 change in capacitance (0.9-0.4 pF). Optically controlled microwave circuits such as X-band analog phase shifters and tunable notch filters, which incorporated the monolithic OVC as the control element, were fabricated to demonstrate the potential of this technology.

    Optical fiber delay lines offer longer delays for microwave bandwidth signals than competing technologies, such as bulk acoustic-wave devices. Deborgies et al. [96] report a 100- s optical fiber delay line with a directly modulated semiconductor laser source for use up to 8 GHz. Signal-to-noise ratio exceeds 127 dB Hz up to 4 GHz, falling to 115 dB Hz at 8 GHz. Higher figures would be achievable using an externally modulated source. However, the existing system exceeded the performance of bulk acoustic-wave technology for all frequencies of the effective optical path length is required. This has been achieved using multiple sources and detectors [108] and two-dimensional free-space optics [109]. Fig. 8 shows a method using a tunable laser and an array of fibers having different dispersion values [110]. As the laser is tuned, the differential delay between fiber paths changes, thus, steering the beam. Fiber Bragg gratings can be used to perform the same function.
    The use of complex digital signal processing in radar has led to a desire to convert signals at the array face into digital form and carry out all subsequent processing digitally. Optical techniques are being applied to analog-to-digital converters to achieve the wide bandwidth and wide dynamic range required, with targets of 18 GHz at 8-bit resolution [112]–[114]. Representative results achieved thus far include 8-bit spurious-free dynamic range at 10 G sample/s.
    With the availability of sub-millimeter-wave bandwidth photodetectors capable of milliwatt-level output power, there are attractive possibilities for optical local-oscillator generation and distribution in systems such as radio telescope arrays. For these applications, phase noise requires careful attention [115]. Signals at frequencies 1 THz locked to a microwave reference can be generated using optical comb generators [116]. Combining optical comb generation with injection-locked comb-line selection has allowed optical synthesis of signals from 10 to 110 GHz to be demonstrated [117]. Fig. 9 shows how such a system mightbe applied to local-oscillator generation for radio-astronomy applications. The long delay and low loss possible in optical fiber canalso be used to produce low phase-noise microwave oscillators.Abstact: An acoustic Stoke and antistoke involved in cross polarised domains between high pressure fermion gas and low pressure boson domains involved as 69 spirals may give some information regarding the air affined and water affined combinations .Stoke and antistoke opposing dynamics in between high pressure negative velocity and low pressure positive velocities call for an amplification in understanding a new Quasi Fluiid dynamics from the earth affined to air affined dynamics stimulated by solar magnetic field evolved as monstrous twisters in middle frequency cross polarization. Bossonova implosions occur when a large number of atoms condense to a point of extreme density, thousands or millions of atoms condensed to the size of a single atom, theoretically capable of creating a micro black hole (yes, a real micro black hole, a microscopic version of a large dieing star collapsing to a black hole then exploding as a Supernova).Feshbach resonances. This will be deviated as cross polarised dynamics by laser velocity selective cross over as unsteady convective diffusion, call for evaluation new quasi quantum mechanical fluid dynamics.

    The split in half spin and full spin electron resonance as quasinatured synchrotron behavior as central dimmer along the cross polarised complex plane must have a meaning in understanding the frequency inversioned or decreased infinite wave length requires an investigation in understanding the bullet wave interference pattern .The interference patterns become so fine that duality wave particles becomes a faster matter wave.
    If we want to disturb the electrons only slightly we could use infra or radio waves by lowering the frequency its wave length can be increased. But some complexities in imaginary plane contribute an amplification by an opposing quadra pole initiate some stoke and antistoke generation-degeneration in the sense that matter wave is produced bullet wave thus produced that penetrate any medium is smoothed along interesting quanta mechanical dynamics. It is in this sense that the electron behaves sometimes as Bossonova wave and sometimes as fermion particle by a complicated game of electron sometimes get cross polarised as dimmer light by going back between through a plate on some strange trajectory. By a cross polarised dynamics its velocity is amplified in between positive pressure, negative velocity and negative pressure positive velocity electron hole cavities. The only function of matter wave is to pilot or guide the matter particles. A sudden softness to penetrate through any medium is possible by understanding the complexcities.This must be deBrogle 45 degree magic wave scattering as a converging and diverging nozzles for amplified resonance. Thus waves produced by the middle frequency cross polarised dynamical system may get amplified that may travel faster than velocity of light at u=c2/f.
    Lower algorithm interpreted: This also comparable with Einstein’s formula m=mo/square root of 1- v2-c2 and mass vanishes at square root 2 c velocity by opposite spins for a funnelling does not explain properly the cross polarised dynamics involved. Quantum mechanics has yet to be reevaluated as I mass imaginary plane as m=mo/i as a n interpretation of mo= im that disappears at the extremities of algorithmic interpretation based on cross polarised neutral plane of fast acceleration and disappearance of mass and realizing it outside a barrier, at the guiding point of a pilot matte wave c2/f and the lower algorithm f ,frequency tending to zero may involved in shifting the electron gun waves into and imaginary plane and realizing it back as real electron after crossing a barrier as part of the trick played by David copper field magic.

    This information is comparable with 8/16 plane Athruva ,Thruva amplified acoustic microchip generators of old knowledge applied in generation of Tornado twisters, Water ,fire affined twisters by peculiar piezo electric effect that is involved under the strange zero spi and infinite spin electron algorithm.
    Conclusion:The research committee of Dr.Vishvanathan along with member Sankara velayudhan nandakumr at Renewable Energy research Institute are of the view that relevaent dark matter entanglement microchips simultaneously operative between 0,+1 and 0,+1 digital applications in computer systems will revolutionize our understanding of new quantum mechanical computer.
    Jacobian neutral domain involved at the extremities of two plane positive and negative pressures call for a cross polarised imaginary plane algorithm.: The maxima and minima Jacobian dynamics involved in neutral plane electron spin between forward and backward and any laser pulse at the center may be connecting the domain into wormhole plane of universe at extreme infinity algorithm. Piece-wise continuity zero, non zero difference calls for imaginary plane jumps at extremities and calls for removable discontinuities at a distance by defining the frequency f in such algorithmic interpretation.
    The kind of continuity and discontinuity at cos algorithm and sin algorithm at middle frequency tan algorithm calls for an interesting imaginary critical disappearance for an interesting cross polarised dynamics.
    Stoke and antistoke Jordon canonicals call for cross polarised amplification energy dynamics on electrons: Further this opposing wave stoke –antistoke amplification can be used in remote sensing on line monitoring of Wind mills by the differentiation of Wind mill acoustic domains 85 db level differentiated by the mobile cell incorporated with piezo electric elements produced that interfere with Wind mill acoustic wave generated by an amplification could be evaluated by software applications.
    Further a mathematical evaluation will be made on dispersed aerosol s as a mixture of deformable agglomeration of fermion and boson phased coalescence in Cancer magneto optic quantum sector will be analyzed by a perturbed technique and concentrated is determined by with the diffusion coefficient K2(r) –pe2 increase with increasing Ri value at negative pressure with decreasing and decreasing Rd radius with increase in in understanding the middle frequency cross polarised resonance involved in formulating new Quasi Fluid dynamical theory.
    We encounter strange encounter complexities in wave dynamics as we can not define a unique in wave length of electron and there is an indefiniteness related to finite wave length of the train. The spread of the momentum py has at pdelas well as on pxdelat magical middle frequencies tan angle and the resonance between converging and diverging angle must have a meaning over the intermediate tan angle at 45 degrees in between a converging and diverging positive and negative pressure resonance and a squeezing involved in between cal for a new amplification on cross polarised dynamics at extremities of frequency inversions as a function of velocity recoiling dynamics.
    The Renewable Energy research center working under Director Dr.Arul kandasamy and secretary Dr.Ramalingam along with Project coordinator Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar and Dr.Visvanathan of computer science dept,Cape Insitute of Technology headed by Dr.Azhagesan ,Principal of Cape Institute of technology anticipate a new line of research activities by producing artificial fermion-boson oscillations by suitably producing 69 dynamics in Xenon-rubidium –bismuth cloud chambers and the monstrous twisters will be controlled by Femto laser pulses for extracting power in Wind mill turbines. This research will facilitate new aerodynamic designs of new propulsion systems that oscillate between positive negative pressures cross polarised to initiate a new propulsion systems.
    Main reference Abstact:* An acoustic Stoke and antistoke involved in cross polarised
    > domains between high pressure fermion gas and low pressure boson domains
    > involved as 69 spirals may give some information regarding the air affined
    > and water affined combinations .Stoke and antistoke opposing dynamics in
    > between high pressure negative velocity and low pressure positive
    > velocities call for an amplification in understanding a new Quasi Fluiid
    > dynamics from the earth affined to air affined dynamics stimulated by
    > solar magnetic field evolved as monstrous twisters in middle frequency cross
    > polarization. Bossonova implosions occur when a large number of atoms
    > condense to a point of extreme density, thousands or millions of atoms
    > condensed to the size of a single atom, theoretically capable of creating a
    > micro black hole (yes, a real micro black hole, a microscopic version of a
    > large dieing star collapsing to a black hole then exploding as a Supernova).Feshbach
    > resonances. This will be deviated as cross polarised dynamics by laser
    > velocity selective cross overs as unsteady convective diffusion .
    > The laser controlled Bossenova Twisters will be in controlled wind mill
    > Turbine generators.
    >
    > *Concoctive mathematical ideas in understanding electron spin variations
    > in between Bossonova and fermion dynamics in understanding new Quasi
    > fermion-bossonova dynamics in for formation of cloud in atmosphere for a
    > monstarous cross dynamical Tornoda Twisters for energy tapping in Wind mill
    > turbines.*
    >
    > On behalf the research committee of Dr.Vishvanathan,Dr.Gnaesan of IIT
    > Chennai along with member Sankara velayudhan nandakumr at Renewable Energy
    > research Institute are of the view that relevaent dark matter entanglement
    > microchips simultaneously operative between 0,+1 and 0,+1 digital
    > applications in computer systems will revolutionize our understanding of new
    > quantum mechanical computer.
    >
    1)Copy to jmburgerscentrum@tudelft.n Prof.dr.ir. G Ooms
    2)Scientific Director of the JMBC copy to rudraihn@hotmai.com
    3) faith@tacc.utexas.edu
    4) Concoctive mathematical ideas in understanding electron spin variations in between Bossonova and fermion dynamics-reg [Incident: 100919-000014news@nature.com
    5) Re: Concoctive mathematical ideas in understanding electron spin variations in between Bossonova and fermion dynamics-reg [Incident: 100919-000015 news@nature.com
    5) Your call CNSHD796070 regarding Re: Jacobian and Jordon interpretation in understanding the new Quasi fliud dynamics in Femion- Bossenovo resonance-reg has been receivedOutreach@stsci.edu
    6) Your call CNSHD796069 regarding Jacobian and Jordon interpretation in understanding the new Quasi fliud dynamics in Femion- Bossenovo resonance-reg has been receivedOutreach@stsci.edu"
    Ref:Generation of cross-polarized photon pairs in a
    microstructure fiber with frequency-conjugate
    laser pump pulses
    J. Fan and A. Migdall
    Optical Technology Division
    National Institute of Standards and Technology
    100 Bureau Drive, Mail Stop 8441, Gaithersburg. MD 20899-8441
    Jfan@nist.gov

    TAG# A Cross polarized oscillation in solar magnetic field calls for genetic catastrophe of air-water affined genes on the palm print of W.T.Stead-reg [Incident: 100802-000279 news@nature.com"
    Your call CNSHD789847 regarding Cross polarised genetic air-water affined catastrophe solved at last -reg has been received Outreach@stsci.edu
    Reference:
    1)Generalised dispersion of atmospheric aerosols using dusty fliud and mixture theory models .UGC advanced studies in Fliud mechanics,Department of of Mathematics ,Bangalore University Bangalore.
    2)Bossonova klaser stimulation study carried by JILA and NIST,USA
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    Russian-born scientist Andre Geim is seen in this undated handout photograph received in London on October 5, 2010. Geim and his Russian-born colleague, Konstantin Novoselov, shared the 2010 Nobel Prize for physics for experiments with super-thin car .
    Graphetechnology may revolutionise the robotic anatomy structural materials as well as a substitute for broken legs with nano technology implications as reinforcing materials as well as fornew genetic bone reinforcement by laser biosimulation complementing the stem cell injections.
    Russian-born scientist Andre Geim is seen in this undated handout photograph received in London on October 5, 2010. Geim and his Russian-born colleague, Konstantin Novoselov, shared the 2010 Nobel Prize for physics for experiments with super-thin carbon matter, the prize committee said on Tuesday.
    A thin flake of ordinary carbon, just one atom thick, lies behind this year's Nobel Prize in Physics. Geim and Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics.
    Graphene is a form of carbon. As a material it is completely new -- not only the thinnest ever but also the strongest. As a conductor of electricity it performs as well as copper. As a conductor of heat it outperforms all other known materials. It is almost completely transparent, yet so dense that not even helium, the smallest gas atom, can pass through it. Carbon, the basis of all known life on earth, has surprised us once again.Graphene twister structure will take place as Robotic anatomical structures says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Project coordinator at Renewable Energy Research center ,CIT campus Anna University from Cape Institute of technology working as project coordinator. The new information available from tubular ,hexa -penta magneticfield gliding through resonance may pave the way for news key dynamical microchips out of BEC microchips at the magic angle of 45 degrees by applying anomalous Hall’s effect and Josephson joints using interesting left-handed and right handed magneticfield doping. Our information results suggest that it will soon be possible to control plasmons, i.e. collective oscillations of electrons, purposefully in the graphene, by virtually establishing a lane composed of projections and humps for them.
    This opens up interesting possibilities for the future technical application and use of plasmons (the so-called "plasmonics") in graphene. By selective adjustment of the surface roughness, different graphene ranges could be generated in which the plasmons are either strongly dampened or can propagate almost unobstructedly. In this way, the plasmons could be conducted along "plasmon conductors" with low surface roughness specifically from one point of a graphene chip to another.

    Geim and Novoselov extracted the graphene from a piece of graphite such as is found in ordinary pencils. Using regular adhesive tape they managed to obtain a flake of carbon with a thickness of just one atom. This at a time when many believed it was impossible for such thin crystalline materials to be stable.
    However, with graphene, physicists can now study a new class of two-dimensional materials with unique properties. Graphene makes experiments possible that give new twists to the phenomena in quantum physics. Also a vast variety of practical applications now appear possible including the creation of new materials and the manufacture of innovative electronics. Graphene transistors are predicted to be substantially faster than today's silicon transistors and result in more efficient computers. “Imagine a graphene wafer with all interconnects made from highly conductive, pristine graphene whereas other parts are modified chemically to become semiconductors and work as transistors. Silicon transistors are nearly as small as allowed by the laws of physics. Graphene also has the edge due to its thickness -- it's a carbon sheet that is a single atom thick. While graphene nanoelectronics could be faster and consume less power than silicon, no one knew how to produce graphene nanostructures on such a reproducible or scalable method. That is until now.
    The importance grapheme sheets in windmill turbine blades at the dipole vortex attack points that may eliminate the wind velocity attacks at critical skew stress This may facilitate further research studies aerofoil sections using piezo electric doping with grapheme sheets.
    Further the magnetic field doping by magnetic field gliding quantum dots of pure monopoles of electric and magnetic digital 0,1 bytes by incorporating positive and negative refractive index materials may revolutionize a new technology in thinking computer as well as in robotic structural material as a suitable anatomy material.
    Biomedical applications as bone fracture reinforcing materials with a promising chance of genetic simulated replacement may also be possible using helium laser biostimulation by crystal doping such as moonstone for flexibility and blue sapphire for brittleness.
    The addition of a hydrogen atom on each of the carbon atoms in the graphene achieved the new material without altering or damaging the distinctive one-atom-thick ‘chicken wire’ construction itself
    The unique electronic properties of graphene have already led researchers to look at ways the material could be used in the development of increasingly small and fast transistors. However, the absence of the energy gap in the electronic spectra forced scientists to use rather complex graphene-based structures like quantum point contacts and quantum dots for this purpose.
    Since it is practically transparent and a good conductor, graphene is suitable for producing transparent touch screens, light panels, and maybe even solar cells.
    When mixed into plastics, graphene can turn them into conductors of electricity while making them more heat resistant and mechanically robust. This resilience can be utilised in new super strong materials, which are also thin, elastic and lightweight. In the future, satellites, airplanes, and cars could be manufactured out of the new composite materials.
    This year's Laureates have been working together for a long time now. Konstantin Novoselov, 36, first worked with Andre Geim, 51, as a PhD-student in the Netherlands. He subsequently followed Geim to the United Kingdom. Both of them originally studied and began their careers as physicists in Russia. Now they are both professors at the University of Manchester.
    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Russian-born scientist Andre Geim is seen in this undated handout photograph received in London on October 5, 2010. Geim and his Russian-born colleague, Konstantin Novoselov, shared the 2010 Nobel Prize for physics for experiments with super-thin carbon matter, the prize committee said on Tuesday.
    A thin flake of ordinary carbon, just one atom thick, lies behind this year's Nobel Prize in Physics. Geim and Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics.
    Graphene is a form of carbon. As a material it is completely new -- not only the thinnest ever but also the strongest. As a conductor of electricity it performs as well as copper. As a conductor of heat it outperforms all other known materials. It is almost completely transparent, yet so dense that not even helium, the smallest gas atom, can pass through it. Carbon, the basis of all known life on earth, has surprised us once again.Graphene twister structure will take place as Robotic anatomical structures says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar,Project coordinator at Renewable Energy Research center ,CIT campus Anna University from Cape Institute of technology working as project coordinator. The new information available from tubular ,hexa -penta magneticfield gliding through resonance may pave the way for news key dynamical microchips out of BEC microchips at the magic angle of 45 degrees by applying anomalous Hall’s effect and Josephson joints using interesting left-handed and right handed magneticfield doping. Our information results suggest that it will soon be possible to control plasmons, i.e. collective oscillations of electrons, purposefully in the graphene, by virtually establishing a lane composed of projections and humps for them.
    This opens up interesting possibilities for the future technical application and use of plasmons (the so-called "plasmonics") in graphene. By selective adjustment of the surface roughness, different graphene ranges could be generated in which the plasmons are either strongly dampened or can propagate almost unobstructedly. In this way, the plasmons could be conducted along "plasmon conductors" with low surface roughness specifically from one point of a graphene chip to another.

    Geim and Novoselov extracted the graphene from a piece of graphite such as is found in ordinary pencils. Using regular adhesive tape they managed to obtain a flake of carbon with a thickness of just one atom. This at a time when many believed it was impossible for such thin crystalline materials to be stable.
    However, with graphene, physicists can now study a new class of two-dimensional materials with unique properties. Graphene makes experiments possible that give new twists to the phenomena in quantum physics. Also a vast variety of practical applications now appear possible including the creation of new materials and the manufacture of innovative electronics. Graphene transistors are predicted to be substantially faster than today's silicon transistors and result in more efficient computers. “Imagine a graphene wafer with all interconnects made from highly conductive, pristine graphene whereas other parts are modified chemically to become semiconductors and work as transistors. Silicon transistors are nearly as small as allowed by the laws of physics. Graphene also has the edge due to its thickness -- it's a carbon sheet that is a single atom thick. While graphene nanoelectronics could be faster and consume less power than silicon, no one knew how to produce graphene nanostructures on such a reproducible or scalable method. That is until now.
    The importance grapheme sheets in windmill turbine blades at the dipole vortex attack points that may eliminate the wind velocity attacks at critical skew stress This may facilitate further research studies aerofoil sections using piezo electric doping with grapheme sheets.
    Further the magnetic field doping by magnetic field gliding quantum dots of pure monopoles of electric and magnetic digital 0,1 bytes by incorporating positive and negative refractive index materials may revolutionize a new technology in thinking computer as well as in robotic structural material as a suitable anatomy material.
    Biomedical applications as bone fracture reinforcing materials with a promising chance of genetic simulated replacement may also be possible using helium laser biostimulation by crystal doping such as moonstone for flexibility and blue sapphire for brittleness.
    The addition of a hydrogen atom on each of the carbon atoms in the graphene achieved the new material without altering or damaging the distinctive one-atom-thick ‘chicken wire’ construction itself
    The unique electronic properties of graphene have already led researchers to look at ways the material could be used in the development of increasingly small and fast transistors. However, the absence of the energy gap in the electronic spectra forced scientists to use rather complex graphene-based structures like quantum point contacts and quantum dots for this purpose.
    Since it is practically transparent and a good conductor, graphene is suitable for producing transparent touch screens, light panels, and maybe even solar cells.
    When mixed into plastics, graphene can turn them into conductors of electricity while making them more heat resistant and mechanically robust. This resilience can be utilised in new super strong materials, which are also thin, elastic and lightweight. In the future, satellites, airplanes, and cars could be manufactured out of the new composite materials.
    This year's Laureates have been working together for a long time now. Konstantin Novoselov, 36, first worked with Andre Geim, 51, as a PhD-student in the Netherlands. He subsequently followed Geim to the United Kingdom. Both of them originally studied and began their careers as physicists in Russia. Now they are both professors at the University of Manchester.
    Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar

    Aitch
    The force is strong in this one, Luke

    Aitch