Accelerating universe attracts Nobel.
    By Johannes Koelman | October 4th 2011 10:32 PM | 5 comments | Print | E-mail | Track Comments
    About Johannes

    I am a Dutchman, currently living in India. Following a PhD in theoretical physics (spin-polarized quantum systems*) I entered a Global Fortune


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    Wow, those folks in Stockholm do pay attention to this blog. With a delay of a year (ok, you are forgiven, graphene is cute stuff after all), one half of the ten million kronor goes to SAUL PERLMUTTER and the other half jointly to BRIAN SCHMIDT and ADAM RIESS.

    Exactly as I instructed them.

    Bravo Nobel committee. And congratulations Saul, Brian and Adam, well deserved!

    Saul Perlmutter receiving a call from Stockholm.
    Credit: Paul Sakuma

    Credit: the universe adventure.

    Let there be no mistake: this Nobel is not for dark energy. It is for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. The first is a theoretical model, the latter is a hard observational fact.


    Want to know more about cosmic acceleration and the dark energy model? My very first blogpost here at Science2.0, holographic dark universe, explains the dark energy problem in laymen's terms.

    This post also suggests an alternative (holographic) interpretation of the cosmic acceleration. As I am one of those who doubt the existence of dark energy, I have deepened these thoughts in a series of blog posts that explore an entropic origin of the cosmic expansion (for a summary see
    It-from-bit: How to get rid of dark energy).


    Your nice graphic would be even more compelling if you would add the deccel/accel transition time of,
    Td/a = 1/{c*sqrt(CC)} = 9.1 Gy (post BB) or 13.7 - 9.1 = 4.6 Gy ago, coincidentally (?), the time at which Earth & the Solar System were formed.
    The ultimate anthropic question: Was it just a coincidence, or Did the transition play a role in the formation of our planet &/or star ? Food for thought.
    Finally a cosmic Nobel, & not one from "Squalid-State Physics !

    Good point about model (Einstein's constant, dark energy) and observation (speeding up of the expansion of the universe). Other bloggers seem incapable of making the distinction.

    You write that "accelerating expansion" "... is a hard observational fact".

    But (as I understand it, anyway) the Hubble diagram of Perlmutter et al shows the actual observations, which are of the brightness-redshift relation of Sn1a's. Everything else (i.e. omega matter, omega lambda fractions), and including a currently accelerating expansion, is an interpretation of those observations. And the interpretations are based on certain assumptions (e.g., that there is no speed limit on the universal expansion). Might it not be that the observations show an accelerated expansion within memory, but not necessarily an expansion that is accelerating "now"?

    Re the holographic dark universe, is it possible to describe an "entropic force" in English?

    Johannes Koelman
    A most interesting thought!

    The work of Lenny Susskind gives strong suggestion that black hole complementarity prevents a single objective history of what happens in the vicinity of a black hole horizon. Observes at different locations will observe a different history of events. Now you are basically asking: could it be that observers at different times witness a different history of the universe? It is very well imaginable that what happens near the horizon of our observable universe (i.e. what happens far away and what we observe as heavily redshifted) is heavily affected by complementarity principles.

    As I said, it's an intriguing suggestion. I do believe, and have emphasized many times here, that something ain't right with the lambda-CDM model of cosmology (the cosmological Standard Model). It is plagued by too many coincidences. Somehow we need to approach cosmological models from a dramatically different point of view, and your suggestion fits nicely into that thought. I need to get into my hammock and think a bit deeper about this!

    PS. Apologies for the belated response. Only saw your reaction today.
    The most probable explanation to the cause of an accelerating universe. Great stuff

    Relativistic Solution
    to a
    Newtonian Accelerating Universe
    Samuel Shepherd
    Presented January 5, 2012

    Why is the universe accelerating in its expansion? Since Perlmutter et al identified the fact that the universe is not only expanding but accelerating; few can explain the reason for the acceleration. Dark Matter and Dark Energy are the mathematical creation to explain this acceleration. This paper offers another simple, but elegant and robust explanation for the initial expansion of the universe followed by its currently observed acceleration into eternity.
    When discussing the accelerating universe, several physical concepts need to be considered. We have evaluated String Theory, Relativistic and Quantum theory; resulting in a complete disconnect with Newtonian Physics. The combining of the infinitely small with the very large completely collapses in the face of currently understood physics.
    This failure has resulted in a complete revision of the approach. An approach that combines the relativistic E=mc2 with the conservation of energy as presented in Newtonian kinetic energy E=1/2 mv2.
    As presented in the law of light; NOTHING CAN TRAVEL FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT
    That’s right NOTHING can travel faster than the speed of light. Is NOTHING something? No it isn’t; it is only the fabric of space.
    Therefore, “NOTHING” can travel faster than the speed of light. So, how fast can “nothing” travel? The answer is found at the singularity of a Black Hole, where all matter is converted to energy. When the singularity reaches a size of less than Planck’s length (1.6162 x 10-35 m) in a three dimensional space, the energy (and any associated boson particles) permeates throughout the universe at speeds exceeding the speed of light. The maximum speed of this energy of “nothing” , which is “space” itself, is as follows:
    Since; Relativistic energy (E)=mc2 has to be equal to the Newtonian (E) = 1/2 mv2
    Then ; mc2 = 1/2 mv2
    Or upon rearrangement; v = 1.414 x c
    The result of this energy impacting the fabric of space (pressure) is an accelerating universe, much the same way as molecules of gas being added at increasing speeds to a balloon causes the balloon surface to accelerate in its expansion.
    But, when did this occur?
    In the beginning, the universe exploded at tremendous speed in very short time (10-52 secs). Up to this point, gravity was not strong enough to cause any form of black hole formation, and therefore no accelerating universe was possible. After this point, the expanse began to slow; gravity became a factor, causing matter to collapse into black holes and slowing the rate of expansion of the universe.
    At this point in creation, the universe began to accelerate as the rate of black hole formation increased. This acceleration of black hole formation created an ever increasing singularity formation; the increase in the number of singularities (smaller than Planck’s constant) resulted in the immediate acceleration of fabric of space as the energy is converted from relativistic to kinetic energy. The resulting universe and fabric of space must accelerate as the energy from the black hole singularities increase at an accelerating rate pushing the fabric of space toward eternity.
    This acceleration of space will further dissipate matter to a distance at which gravity can no longer form black holes. This acceleration of black hole formation will continue until matter is so dispersed (large distance), from the accelerating universe, that gravity no longer has an impact and the black hole formation will therefore, cease. This cessation of black hole formation will stop the further acceleration of the universe. The universe will continue traveling at a speed of less than 1.41 times the speed of light until the universe is so dissipated that no stars or light will be visible.
    The implications of this accelerating universe on time are profound. If space can travel 41% faster than light, then the apparent age of the universe as measured by Doppler, is undoubtedly wrong. It is also important to note that an accelerating universe could have resulted in the Entropic energy we now observe. It is probable that Entropy did not exist until the universe began to accelerate.