Superconductors are materials that conduct electricity with no resistance. Electricity comes from electrons traveling through wire conductors. Those electrons bumping into each other generate an enormous amount of heat. With superconductors, however, there is no jostling, therefore no heat. But there's a catch: "High-temperature" superconductors (a very relative term) only behave this way when they are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures – between -346°F and -320.44°F.
Scientists have been unable to decipher just how copper-oxide HTS materials become superconductors. In its natural state, copper-oxide behaves like a permanent magnet. Scientists "dope" the material – which involves adding impurities to increase the number of electron carriers – and as a result of the doping and the cooling, the material turns into a superconductor, with the doped electrons pairing up to effortless carry electricity. But how, and where in the material, does this happen?