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With a grant from the World Anti-Doping Agency, University of Vermont anthropology professor Brian Gilley has spent the last year studying attitudes among under-23-year-old cyclists towards use of performance enhancing drugs.

Since the Tour de France ousted its third cyclist from the race, even after multiple doping scandals the last few years, his findings are interesting.

Using American amateur collegiate cyclists as his control, Gilley interviewed elite junior and young adult Italian, Belgian, and American riders and found a surprising mix of responses about willingness to dope. The majority, he says, believe intense pressure from team managers and sponsors forces them to cheat in order to be competitive.


There's a satellite in medium Earth orbit - one of 31 U.S. Air Force satellites - that carries some special cargo; a collection of sensors to detect and triangulate airborne or space-based nuclear explosions anywhere they may occur.

In the recent past, detection has been no problem — there haven’t been any above-ground explosions for decades - but there could be one any time and the country that did it could simply deny if its leaders didn’t believe anyone could track it.

These sensors have to be ready to detect a real explosion and also to compensate for false alarms: There are lightning bolts that occur more than once per second, energetic particles from the Van Allen radiation belt that collide with electronics on the satellite, a welter of “noise” from cell phone communications, and meteors.

Sideria Hendricks is only 10 years old, but she already has suffered two strokes.

The first occurred on Christmas Eve a few years ago. Sideria suddenly couldn't speak, and her left arm and left leg went limp. She eventually recovered, but later suffered a second minor stroke.

About 3,200 strokes occur each year in children under age 18. Although strokes are among the top ten causes of death in childhood, family members and doctors often are slow to recognize symptoms, said Dr. Jose Biller, a co-author of the American Heart Association's new guidelines for managing strokes in children.

Research shows that as more scholarly and research journals are available online, researchers are citing fewer of them - and they are primarily newer papers.

There's no question the Internet gives scientists and researchers instant access to a wealth of academic journals, a very good thing, but the impact hadn't been studied until recently. New research in Science says that scholars are actually citing fewer papers in their work, and the papers they do cite tend to be more recent publications. This trend may be limiting the creation of new ideas and theories.

James Evans is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Chicago, who focuses on the nature of scholarly research. During a lecture on the influence of private industry money on research, a student instead asked how the growth of the Internet has shaped science. "I didn't have an immediate answer," Evans said.

Humans have long been trying to make the dream of nanoscopic robots come true. It's getting closer each time nanoscience produces components for molecular-scale machines.

One such device is a rotor; a movable component that rotates around an axis. Trying to observe such rotational motion on the molecular scale is an extremely difficult undertaking but Japanese researchers at the Universities of Osaka and Kyoto have met this challenge. As Akira Harada and his team report in the journal Angewandte Chemie, they were able to get "snapshots" of individual molecular rotors caught in motion.

As the subject of their study the researchers chose a rotaxane. This is a two-part molecular system: A rod-shaped molecule is threaded by a second, ring-shaped molecule like a cuff while a stopper at the end of the rod prevents the ring from coming off. The researchers attached one end of the rod to a glass support. To observe the rotational motions of the cuff around the sleeve, the scientists attached a fluorescing side chain to the cuff as a probe.


Researchers from China, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom, have created a model that shows exactly how, when a baby suckles at a mother's breast, it starts a chain of events that leads to a surge of the "trust" hormone oxytocin in their mother's brain.