The 4th of July is a holiday in the United States because it's the day a group of British citizens decided to throw off the shackles of tyranny and go out on their own, and they inspired a nation to join them. Or, if you are one of those self-loathing cynical Americans who don't realize how lucky you are to be born in a wealthy western country, it is a day when a bunch of rich guys decided they didn't want to pay their taxes(1).
But the 4th of July is not just history, it's also apple pie, motherhood and ... chemistry.
Search For Franklin - A Free Resource
Much of what was known about the Arctic before the 20th century came from the sheer guts and determination of men who didn't know how to quit.
The quest for a North West Passage was promoted by commercial and military considerations. After the loss of the Franklin Expedition with two entire ships' crews, a 'no expense spared' approach was taken to finding the lost expedition.
Many of the ships engaged in the search had to be abandoned due to the terrible conditions. Eventually, all hope of finding any member of the Franklin crews alive was abandoned.
A science historian at The University of Manchester says he has cracked 'The Plato Code', secret messages purported to be hidden in the writings of history's most famous philosopher.
Plato likely needs no introduction here but, in brief, he was one of the most influential authors in history; philosopher, mathematician and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the West, which laid the foundations of both Western philosophy and science.
Getting Steamed Up About Nostalgia
The term nostalgia
describes a yearning for the past.
As a child, I would travel to school on a steam train. I have always loved the power and the beauty of the steam engine. The steam trains are mostly gone now, except for a few historic lines run by and for enthusiasts.
One of my many hobbies is to examine satellite photographs and rediscover old railroad routes using the visual skills of the aerial archaeologist. When the 19th and early 20th century engineers called their routes 'permanent way' they certainly knew what they were talking about.
Arctic Heroes #1 - Alfred Wegener
The history of Arctic and Antarctic exploration and discovery is filled with the names of heroes. Many of those names get repeated over and over in popular writings on polar exploration. Other names tend to get forgotten. Here, in no particular order, I hope to write of some of these heroes, both remembered and forgotten.Alfred_Wegener
is most famous for his Theory of the Drift of the Continents
. He is less widely known for his enthusiastic contributions to climatology and meteorology, which led to his death on the Greenland ice sheet in 1930 under the most heroic circumstances.
This month a long time friend graduated with a PhD in science after 7 years of rather difficult studies beyond his master's degree. It was a big relief to him ending a period of weekend laboratories and late night study sessions. He passed the oral exams two months ago, and was left with only a few loose ends to tie up. Two pages of his dissertation had top margins that were a quarter inch too wide.
Remembering my own 23 years of college and some similar experiences along the way, I sent congratulations and included a copy of Albert Einstein's Ph.D. dissertation, with the hope that it would help to get the margins right.
In 1457 B.C. at Megiddo, named in the Bible Derekh Hayam (Hebrew: דרך הים), was fought the first battle remembered by military history.
In 1872 Charles Darwin completed what may be the first example of a prospective "single-blind" study of human perception of emotional expression.
Through scrutiny of Darwin's previously unpublished handwritten notes on his experiments, neuroscientists have demonstrated how this early experiment has direct implications to current work today in the areas of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and other neuropsychiatric conditions.
The appears in the Journal of the History of the Neurosciences.
Science, outside some in the climate community (*), is anti-authoritarian. There is no voting to create a consensus in science, no appeals to authority - science is vulnerable every single day of the year, to experiments, to revisions and to complete debunking by new generations of scientists who, like gun-slingers in the Old West, want to make their name taking down the big guys.
Great thinkers like Einstein and Aristotle have been slain by the scientific method so it can happen to anyone - and that power is what made freedom possible, according to Timothy Ferris, emeritus professor at the University of California, Berkeley, former editor of Rolling Stone magazine, and book author.
This must rank up there as the most bizarre holiday destination in the world.
Trinity is the location of the first nuclear test by the Manhattan Project. The world's first plutonium bomb was detonated there on 16 July 1945 - similar to the one dropped on Nagasaki. The site is now part of the White Sands Missile Range, and unbelievably is open to the public.
Well, almost open to the public! The nuclear tourist can visit Trinity on two days of the year; on the first Saturday in April and October. The next visitor day is thus on the 3rd April 2010 which falls on the Easter weekend. Note also that these days coincide with guided tours at the Very Large Array nearby.