A close-up view of the dentition of an ancient aquatic, carnivorous lizard, the mighty Mosasaur, from Late Cretaceous exposures on Vancouver Island. 
<>This well-prepped specimen is now housed in the collections of the Courtenay Museum, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

The creature who owned this jaw bone undoubtedly swan alongside Kourisodon puntledgensis, another enormously powerful marine predator and new species of Mosasaur unearthed on Vancouver Island. 

Their feet modified into flippers, they were expert swimmers and hunters, with a strong tail for propulsion. These two would have commanded our ancient seaways between 70 and 66 million years ago.



A great temple to the god Amon was built at Karnak in Upper Egypt around c. 1785. It is from Amon that we get his cephalopod namesake, the ammonites and also the name origin for the compound ammonia or NH3.

Ammonites were a group of hugely successful aquatic molluscs that looked like the still extant Nautilus, a coiled shellfish that lives off the southern coast of Asia.

While the Nautilus lived on, ammonites graced our waters from around 400 million years ago until the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years.

Those working in the Jurassic exposures on Vancouver Island are a determined crew. Most of the sedimentary deposits of the Jurassic are exposed in the hard to reach areas between Nootka Sound and Cape Scott.

I've been interested in the edible forest garden idea for over twenty years and have planted and designed several myself in Ireland in that time, and visited several others. But they have never lived up to my expectations and were largely unproductive, despite sourcing as many perennial vegetables and other interesting edible plants as I could. Here I review the claims made for them and what evidence there is to support the idea- and conclude that, as Permaculture founder Bill Mollison said in the first place, in temperate regions you are far better growing your fruit trees and vegetables separately.

Book review: The New Wild: Why invasive species will be nature's salvation by Fred Pearce

Icon Books 2015 new-wild

In 1910  New Zealand's great botanist Leonard Cochayne described the dramatic change in  plant communities which had occurred since the first visit of Captain Cook to the country in 1769 (1). Some 560 new species from Europe, Africa and elsewhere had by become established by then, with half of them common throughout the country from the coasts to the highest mountains:

INDIANAPOLIS -- Using stem cells derived from human skin cells, researchers led by Jason Meyer, assistant professor of biology, along with graduate student Sarah Ohlemacher of the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, have successfully demonstrated the ability to turn stem cells into retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the neurons that conduct visual information from the eye to the brain. Their goal is the development of therapies to prevent or cure glaucoma.

In addition to glaucoma, a group of degenerative diseases that damage the eye's optic nerve and can result in vision loss and blindness, this work has potential implications for treatment of optic- nerve injuries of the types incurred by soldiers in combat or athletes in contact sports.

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  The main number of free parameters in the Standard Model comes from the Higgs sector.

Today in Science Codex I read this article

I am very happy to report that Professor Giorgio Parisi won another prize. Parisi is an Italian theoretical physicist who is very well known for his decisive contribution to QCD, with the DGLAP equations (the P stands for his last name) that govern the dynamics of gluons. However his work did not stop there - after that result Parisi continued excellent research and it is not by chance that he collected prizes and acknowledgements along the way for the more recent contributions he has given to theoretical physics. 
The 2016 prize called after Lars Onsager is given to Giorgio by the APS
For Pi Day 2016, I’ll demonstrate how to flash a Snap Circuits LED with the Kano Computer (my version of the Kano has the Raspberry Pi 2). I've lost count of how many computers I've built over the years, but I think it is safe to say that the Kano Computer was the easiest build ever. So simple a child could do it. Kano founders, Yonatan Raz-Fridman, Alex Klein, and Saul Klein, wanted to figure out what the next generation’s computer would be like, so they asked Micah, Saul’s seven-year-old son.